Asteridae

Kousa dogwood Cornus kousa, from here.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Garryidae, Campanulidae, Ericales, Loasaceae.

The Asteridae is one of the major clades of flowering plants. Many members of the clade are sympetalous, with the petals fused to varying degrees from the base. The clade is mainly supported by molecular data, but possible synapomorphies include tenuinucellate and unitegmic ovules, sympetaly, and iridoid compounds (Cantino et al. 2007). Members of the Asteridae may be divided between three main clades, the Cornales, Ericales and Gentianidae. Members of the Cornales usually have tetramerous flowers with an inferior gynoecium bearing a disc-like nectary and one ovule per carpel, and drupaceous fruits. The Gentianidae are the clade often informally known as the euasterids, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the least inclusive clade including Gentiana lutea and Campanula elatines. Possible synapomorphies include the possession of epipetalous stamens, equalling or less than the number of corolla lobes, two fused carpels, and unitegmic ovules (Cantino et al. 2007).

<==Asteridae [Gamopetalae, Hydrangeales, Hypogynae, Metachlamydeae, Sympetalae, Theanae, Umbelliflorae]
    |--Gentianidae [Euasteridae, Gentianiflorae, Pittosporales, Solaniflorae] K01
    |    |--Garryidae NDA05
    |    `--Campanulidae CD07
    `--+--Ericales NDA05
       `--Cornales [Cornanae, Cornineae] NDA05
            |  i. s.: Tylerianthus T00
            |         Curtisia [Curtisiaceae] T00
            |         Grubbia T00 [Grubbiaceae APG16]
            |         Mastixiaceae [Mastixioideae] JD05
            |           |--Diplopanax T00
            |           |--Mastixia T00
            |           |--Retinomastixia glandulosa JD05
            |           `--Eomastixia bilocularis JD05
            |--+--Alangium [Alangiaceae] K01
            |  |    `--A. salvifolium SR07
            |  |         |--A. s. var. salvifolium SR07
            |  |         `--A. s. var. hexapetalum SR07
            |  `--Cornaceae K01
            |       |--Marlea [incl. Stylidium Loureiro 1790 (nom. rej.?) non Swartz 1805] BR65
            |       |    `--*Stylidium’ chinense (n. d.) BR65
            |       `--Cornus K01
            |            |--C. alternifolia ZB01
            |            |--C. canadensis M03
            |            |--C. controversa [incl. C. macrophylla] LO98
            |            |--C. florida ZB01
            |            |--C. glabrata H93
            |            |--C. kousa ZB01
            |            |--C. mas Linnaeus 1753 CD07
            |            |--C. nuttallii ZB01
            |            |--C. officinalis LO98
            |            |--C. sanguinea G98
            |            |--C. sericea H93
            |            |    |--C. s. ssp. sericea (see below for synonymy) H93
            |            |    `--C. s. ssp. occidentalis H93
            |            `--C. sessilis H93
            `--+--Nyssaceae T00
               |    |--Davidioideae [Davidiaceae] T00
               |    `--Nyssoideae T00
               |         |--Camptotheca [Camptothecaceae] T00
               |         `--Nyssa K01
               `--+--Loasaceae T00
                  |--Hydrostachys T00 [Hydrostachyaceae APG16]
                  `--Hydrangeaceae [Philadelphaceae] T00
                       |  i. s.: Dichroa febrifuga D07
                       |--+--Fendlera rupicola K01, NDA05
                       |  `--Hydrangea [Hydrangeoideae] K01
                       |       |--H. macrophylla MH98
                       |       |--H. paniculata T07
                       |       |--H. quercifolia B54
                       |       |--H. scandens D03
                       |       `--H. serratifolia B14
                       `--Philadelphoideae [Philadelphaceae] T00
                            |--Kirengeshoma T00
                            |--Deutzia crenata H93, MH98
                            |--Carpenteria californica H93
                            |--Fendlerella utahensis H93
                            |--Whipplea modesta H93
                            |--Philadelphus K01
                            |    |--P. lewisii [incl. P. lewisii ssp. californicus, P. lewisii ssp. gordonianus] H93
                            |    `--P. microphyllus [incl. P. m. ssp. pumilus, P. m. ssp. stramineus] H93
                            `--Jamesia americana H93
                                 |--J. a. var. americana H93
                                 `--J. a. var. rosea [incl. J. americana var. californica] H93

Cornus sericea ssp. sericea [incl. C. californica, C. sericea var. nevadensis, C. stolonifera] H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B54] Beer, R. E. 1954. A revision of the Tarsonemidae of the Western Hemisphere (order, Acarina). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 36 (2): 1091–1387.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489–537.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259–2274.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[M03] Mockford, E. L. 2003. New species and records of Psocoptera from the Kuril Islands. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl., Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 50 (2): 191–230.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[T07] Tsurusaki, N. 2007. The Chugoku Mountains—a hotspot of geographical differentiation of species. Taxa 22: 3–14.

[ZB01] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355–365.

Last updated: 25 November 2018.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS