Certhioidea

Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea, photographed by Paweł Kuźniar.


Belongs within: Muscicapoidea.
Contains: Troglodytidae.

The Certhioidea is a clade of passerine birds supported by molecular analyses, uniting the families Certhiidae, Sittidae and Troglodytidae. Certhioids are small, mostly dull-coloured birds that generally feed by gleaning insects off vegetation, though Sittidae also eat seeds.

<==Certhioidea
    |--+--+--Troglodytidae BB05
    |  |  `--Palaeoscinis [Palaeoscinidae] FP64
    |  |       `--P. turdirostris FP64
    |  `--Polioptilinae B94
    |       |--Ramphocaenus Vieillot 1819 [Ramphocaeninae] B94
    |       |--Microbates A61
    |       `--Polioptila Sclater 1855 BC04, B94
    |            |  i. s.: P. buffoni SS66
    |            |         P. leucogastra SS66
    |            |         P. plumbea [incl. Culicivora atricapilla] B94
    |            |--*P. caerulea (Linné 1766) B94, JF06, B94 [=Motacilla caerulea B94]
    |            `--+--P. albiloris JF06
    |               `--+--P. nigriceps JF06
    |                  `--+--P. californica JF06
    |                     `--P. melanura JF06
    `--+--Certhiidae BB05
       |    |--Salpornis Gray 1847 [Salpornithinae] B94
       |    |    `--S. spilonotus A61
       |    `--Certhia Linnaeus 1758 [Certhiinae] M02
       |         |--C. americana FP64
       |         |--C. brachydactyla HK02
       |         `--C. familiaris Linnaeus 1758 M02
       `--Sittidae BB05
            |--Tichodroma Illiger 1811 [Tichodromidae, Tichodrominae] B94
            |    `--T. muraria FP64
            `--Sitta Linnaeus 1758 [Sittinae] M02
                 |  i. s.: S. magna Ramsay 1876 S89
                 |         S. neglecta Walden 1870 S89
                 |         S. senogalliensis Portis 1887 M02
                 |--+--S. europaea Linnaeus 1758 JF06, M02
                 |  `--+--S. carolinensis JF06
                 |     `--S. himalayensis JF06
                 `--+--S. frontalis JF06
                    `--+--S. pygmaea JF06
                       `--+--+--S. krueperi JF06
                          |  `--S. ledanti JF06
                          `--+--S. canadensis JF06
                             `--+--S. villosa JF06
                                `--S. whiteheadi JF06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[BC04] Barker, F. K., A. Cibois, P. Schikler, J. Feinstein & J. Cracraft. 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (30): 11040-11045.

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HK02] Helbig, A. J., A. G. Knox, D. T. Parkin, G. Sangster & M. Collinson. 2002. Guidelines for assigning species rank. Ibis 144: 518-525.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

Regulus

Goldcrest Regulus regulus, photographed by Rein Kuresoo.


Belongs within: Passerida.

The genus Regulus contains the kinglets, very small birds of the Holarctic region. Both the generic and vernacular name refer to the crowns of yellow, orange or red the birds possess. Kinglets build bowl-shaped nests from moss and lichen bound with spider and caterpillar silk that expand as the young grow (Sturmbauer et al. 1998).

Characters (from Sturmbauer et al. 1998): Small, fluffy-plumaged; wings with ten primaries. Nostrils basal, with oval opening in front of coriaceous groove, indistinctly operculated, usually covered with small, stiff, peculiarly-shaped feather (except in Regulus calendula).

Regulus Cuvier 1800 [Regulidae, Regulinae] M02
    |  i. s.: R. bulgaricus Boev 1999 M02
    |         R. goodfellowi A61
    |--R. calendula SB98
    |    |--R. c. calendula MS55
    |    `--R. c. obscurus MS55
    |--R. satrapa JF06
    `--+--R. ignicapillus (Temminck 1820) SB98, M02 [=Sylvia ignicapilla M02]
       `--+--R. regulus SB98
          |    |--R. r. regulus VP89
          |    `--R. r. japonensis VP89
          `--R. teneriffae SB98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SB98] Sturmbauer, C., B. Berger, R. Dallinger & M. Föger. 1998. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the genus Regulus and implications on the evolution of breeding behaviour in sylvioid songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10 (1): 144-149.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Troglodytes troglodytes

Wrens Troglodytes troglodytes, photographed by Sonja Kübelbeck.


Belongs within: Troglodytes.

The wren or winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes is found throughout the Holarctic, and is the only species of Troglodytidae found in Eurasia.

<==Troglodytes troglodytes (Linnaeus 1758) M02 [=Motacilla troglodytes L03, *Nannus troglodytes L03]
    |--T. t. troglodytes L03
    |--T. t. islandicus Hartert 1907 L03
    |--T. t. juniperi Hartert 1922 L03
    |--T. t. kabylorum Hartert 1910 L03
    |--T. t. mosukei Momiyama 1923 I92
    |--T. t. neglectus Brooke 1872 L03
    |--T. t. ogawae Hartert 1910 L03
    |--T. t. orii Yamashina 1939 I92
    |--T. t. pacificus Rea 1986 [incl. T. t. muiri Rea 1986] L03
    |--T. t. szetchuanus Hartert 1910 L03
    `--T. t. taivanus Hartert 1910 L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

Troglodytidae

Falklands sedge wren Cistothorus platensis falklandicus, photographed by Laurent Demongin.


Belongs within: Certhioidea.
Contains: Troglodytes, Campylorhynchus, Thryothorus.

The Troglodytidae are the wrens, small insectivorous passerine birds with stout legs, short rounded wings, and slender, sharp, usually down-curved bills (Austin 1961). Wrens are mostly found in North and South America, with only a single living species extending its range into Eurasia.

<==Troglodytidae
    |  i. s.: Ferminia cerverai FP64
    |         Heleodytes minor MS55
    |           |--H. m. minor MS55
    |           `--H. m. bicolor MS55
    |         Uropsila leucogastra (Gould 1837) L03
    |           |--U. l. leucogastra [incl. Nannorchilus leucogaster grisescens Griscom 1928] L03
    |           `--U. l. brachyura (Lawrence 1887) [=Troglodytes brachyurus] L03
    |--+--Odontorchilus JF06
    |  |    |--O. branickii L03
    |  |    |    |--O. b. branickii L03
    |  |    |    `--O. b. minor (Hartert 1900) [=Odontorhynchus branickii minor] L03
    |  |    `--O. cinereus JF06
    |  `--+--+--Catherpes mexicanus JF06
    |     |  `--Hylorchilus sumichrasti JF06
    |     `--+--Microcerculus JF06
    |        |    |--M. albigularis Sclater 1858 [=Pheugopedius albigularis] S66
    |        |    |--M. bambla L03 [=Cyphorhinus (Microcerculus) bambla S66]
    |        |    |    |--M. b. bambla L03
    |        |    |    `--M. b. caurensis Berlepsch & Hartert 1902 L03
    |        |    |--M. luscinia Salvin 1866 S66
    |        |    |--M. marginatus Sclater 1855 S66
    |        |    |    |--M. m. marginatus L03
    |        |    |    |--M. m. antioquensis Chapman 1915 [=M. squamulatus antioquensis] L03
    |        |    |    `--M. m. occidentalis Hellmayr 1906 L03
    |        |    |--M. philomela Salvin 1861 [=Cyphorhinus philomela] S66
    |        |    `--M. ustulatus L03
    |        |         |--M. u. ustulatus L03
    |        |         `--M. u. duidae Chapman 1929 L03
    |        `--Salpinctes obsoletus JF06
    |             |--S. o. obsoletus FS55
    |             `--S. o. guttatus FS55
    `--+--+--Troglodytes JF06
       |  |--Thryorchilus browni JF06
       |  `--Cistothorus JF06
       |       |--C. apolinari Chapman 1914 L03
       |       |--C. brevis FP64
       |       |--C. meridae Hellmayr 1907 [=C. platensis meridae] L03
       |       |--C. palustris L03
       |       |    |--C. p. palustris L03
       |       |    `--C. p. marianae Scott 1888 L03
       |       `--C. platensis L03
       |            |--C. p. platensis L03
       |            |--C. p. aequatorialis Lawrence 1871 L03
       |            |--C. p. alticola Salvin & Goodman 1883 [incl. C. p. caracasensis Chapman 1921] L03
       |            |--C. p. falklandicus Chapman 1934 L03
       |            |--C. p. jalapensis Dickerman 1975 L03
       |            |--C. p. tucumanus Hartert in Hartert & Venturi 1909 L03
       |            `--C. p. warneri Dickerman 1975 L03
       `--+--+--Campylorhynchus JF06
          |  `--+--Thryomanes bewickii JF06
          |     |    |--T. b. bewickii L03
          |     |    |--T. b. brevicauda MS55
          |     |    `--T. b. pulichi (Phillips 1986) [=Troglodytes bewickii pulichi] L03
          |     `--‘Thryothorus’ ludovicianus JF06
          |          |--T. l. ludovicianus L03
          |          `--T. l. lomitensis Sennett 1890 L03
          `--+--Henicorhina JF06 [incl. Heterorhina Baird 1864-1866 L03]
             |    |--H. hilaris Berlepsch & Taczanowski 1884 L03
             |    |--H. leucophrys (Tschudi 1844) L03
             |    |    |--H. l. leucophrys [incl. H. l. berlepschi Ridgway 1903] L03
             |    |    |--H. l. brunneiceps Chapman 1914 L03
             |    |    |--H. l. castanea Ridgway 1903 (see below for synonymy) L03
             |    |    `--H. l. venezuelensis Hellmayr 1903 L03
             |    |--H. leucoptera Fitzpatrick, Terborgh & Willard 1977 L03
             |    `--H. leucosticta L03
             |         |--H. l. leucosticta L03
             |         |--H. l. albilateralis Chapman 1917 [=Henicorhina prostheleuca albilateralis] L03
             |         `--H. l. smithei Dickerman 1973 L03
             `--Thryothorus JF06

Henicorhina leucophrys castanea Ridgway 1903 [=Heterorhina griseicollis Baird 1864-1866 non Merulaxis griseicollis Lafresnaye 1840] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[S66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67-76.

Turdinae

Hermit thrush Catharus guttatus, photographed by Daniel Berganza.


Belongs within: Muscicapoidea.
Contains: Zoothera, Turdus.

The Turdinae contains the thrushes, medium-sized passerine birds with unscaled tarsi (Austin 1961). Most thrushes are fairly dull-coloured, but are often notable singers. Past authors have also included the chats, robins and related birds in the Turdinae, but those species are now regarded as more closely related to the Muscicapinae.

<==Turdinae
    |  i. s.: Kittacincla A61
    |           |--K. macroura [=Turdus macrourus] W66
    |           `--K. malabarica A61
    |         Phaeornis FP64
    |           |--P. obscurus USDI77
    |           |    |--P. o. obscurus USDI77
    |           |    |--P. o. myadestina USDI77
    |           |    `--P. o. rutha USDI77
    |           `--P. palmeri USDI77
    |--+--Myadestes Swainson 1838 JF06, B94 [Myadestinae]
    |  |    |--M. obscurus FS55
    |  |    |    |--M. o. obscurus FS55
    |  |    |    `--M. o. oberholseri FS55
    |  |    |--M. ralloides JF06
    |  |    |--M. townsendi JF06
    |  |    `--M. unicolor JF06
    |  `--+--Stizorhina JF06
    |     |    |--S. finschi [=Neocossyphus finschi] JF06
    |     |    `--S. fraseri [=Neocossyphus fraseri] JF06
    |     `--Neocossyphus Fischer & Reichenow 1884 JF06, B94 [Neocossyphinae]
    |          |--N. poensis JF06
    |          `--N. rufus JF06
    |--+--Grandala Hodgson 1843 JF06, B94 [Grandalinae]
    |  |    `--G. coelicolor JF06
    |  `--Sialia Swainson 1827 JF06, B94 [Sialiinae]
    |       |--S. mexicanus JF06
    |       `--+--S. currucoides JF06
    |          `--S. sialis JF06
    `--+--Zoothera JF06
       `--+--+--+--Psophocichla litsipsirupa JF06
          |  |  `--Turdus JF06
          |  `--+--‘Zoothera’ sibirica JF06 [=Turdus sibiricus T89]
          |     `--+--‘Zoothera’ erythronota JF06
          |        `--+--+--‘Zoothera’ cameronensis JF06
          |           |  `--‘Zoothera’ princei JF06
          |           `--+--‘Zoothera’ gurneyi JF06
          |              `--‘Zoothera’ piaggiae JF06
          `--+--+--Chlamydochaera jefferyi Sharpe 1887 JF06, L03
             |  `--Cochoa Hodgson 1836 JF06, B94 [Cochoaninae, Cochoinae]
             |       `--C. viridis JF06
             `--+--Ixoreus JF06
                |    |--I. naevius [=Zoothera naevia] JF06
                |    `--I. varius WM01
                `--+--+--Cichlopsis leucogenys JF06
                   |  `--Entomodestes JF06
                   |       |--E. coracinus JF06
                   |       `--E. leucotis JF06
                   `--+--+--Hylocichla JF06
                      |  |    |--*H. mustelina FP64 [=Catharus mustelinus JF06, Turdus mustelinus FP64]
                      |  |    `--H. ustulata G68
                      |  `--Ridgwayia pinicola [=Zoothera pinicola] JF06
                      `--Catharus JF06
                           |  i. s.: C. griseiceps Salvin 1866 S66
                           |         C. maculatus Sclater 1858 S66
                           |         C. melpomene (Cab. 1850) S66
                           |--+--C. aurantiirostris (Hartl. 1850) JF06, S66 [incl. C. immaculatus S66]
                           |  |    |--C. a. aurantiirostris FS55
                           |  |    `--C. a. bangsi FS55
                           |  |--C. dryas (Gould 1854) JF06, S66
                           |  |--C. fuscater (Lafr. 1845) JF06, S66
                           |  `--C. mexicanus JF06
                           `--+--C. ustulatus JF06
                              `--+--C. gracilirostris Salvin 1864 JF06, S66
                                 `--+--+--C. guttatus JF06 [=Hylocichla guttata FP64]
                                    |  `--C. occidentalis Sclater 1859 JF06, S66
                                    `--+--C. frantzii Cab. 1860 JF06, S66
                                       `--+--C. bicknelli JF06
                                          |--C. fuscescens JF06
                                          `--C. minimus JF06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G68] Grant, P. R. 1968. Bill size, body size, and the ecological adaptations of bird species to competitive situations on islands. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 319-333.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[S66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67-76.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537-556.

Muscicapoidea

White-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus, photographed by Jean Hupperetz.


Belongs within: Passerida.
Contains: Certhioidea, Mimidae, Sturninae, Turdinae, Muscicapinae.

The Muscicapoidea is a clade of passerine birds including the Old World flycatchers, thrushes, starlings and related species. Muscicapoids are speciose throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with Turdinae and Mimidae extending into South America.

See also: The tomb of the unknown honeyeater.

Muscicapoidea
    |--Certhioidea JF06
    `--+--Bombycillidae BB05
       |    |  i. s.: Hypocolius Bonaparte 1850 B94 [Hypocoliinae L03]
       |    |           `--H. ampelinus Bonaparte 1851 [incl. H. ampelinus orientalis Koelz 1939] L03
       |    |--Bombycilla Vieillot 1807 FJO08, M02 [Bombycillinae]
       |    |    |--B. cedrorum FP64
       |    |    |--B. garrulus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Lanius garrulus] M02
       |    |    `--B. japonica T89
       |    `--+--Dulus Vieillot 1816 FJO08, B94 [Dulidae, Dulinae]
       |       |    `--D. dominicus FP64
       |       `--+--Ptilogonatinae L03
       |          |    |--Phainoptila melanoxantha Salvin 1877 FJO08, L03 [incl. P. m. minor Griscom 1924 L03]
       |          |    `--+--Phainopepla nitens FJO08
       |          |       `--Ptilogonys Swainson 1824 FJO08, B94
       |          |            `--P. cinereus BC04
       |          `--Mohoidae FJO08
       |               |--Moho Lesson 1831 FJO08
       |               |    |--M. apicalis FJO08
       |               |    |--M. bishopi FJO08
       |               |    |--M. braccatus FJO08
       |               |    `--M. nobilis FJO08
       |               `--Chaetoptila Gray 1869 FJO08
       |                    `--C. angustipluma FJO08
       `--+--Sturnidae BB05
          |    |  i. s.: Fregilupus OF05
          |    |           |--F. rodericanus FP64
          |    |           `--F. varius OF05
          |    |         Necropsar rodericanus OF05
          |    |--+--Mimidae JF06
          |    |  `--Sturninae JF06
          |    `--Buphagus Brisson 1760 JF06, B94 [Buphaginae]
          |         |--B. africanus A61
          |         `--B. erythrorhynchus FP64
          `--+--Cinclus Borkhausen 1797 BB05, B94 (see below for synonymy)
             |    |  i. s.: ‘Hydrobata’ marila L03
             |    |--+--*C. cinclus (Linnaeus 1758) B94, JF06, L03 [=*Hydrobata cinclus B94]
             |    |  |    |--C. c. cinclus (see below for synonymy) L03
             |    |  |    |--C. c. aquaticus Bechstein 1803 (see below for synonymy) L03
             |    |  |    |--C. c. hibernicus L03
             |    |  |    `--C. c. leucogaster Bonaparte 1850 [incl. C. bilkevitchi Zarudny 1902] L03
             |    |  `--C. pallasii JF06
             |    |       |--C. p. pallasii L03
             |    |       `--C. p. tenuirostris Bonaparte 1850 [incl. C. p. kargasiensis Koelz 1939] L03
             |    `--+--C. mexicanus JF06
             |       |    |--C. m. mexicanus L03
             |       |    `--C. m. anthonyi Griscom 1930 L03
             |       `--+--C. leucocephalus JF06
             |          `--C. schulzi JF06
             `--Muscicapidae [Turdidae] BB05
                  |  i. s.: Xenocopsychus ansorgei MS55
                  |         *Campicoloides bifasciatus (see below for synonymy) B93
                  |         Cercomela schlegelii B93
                  |           |--C. s. schlegelii B93
                  |           `--C. s. pollux (Hartlaub 1865) [=Saxicola pollux] B93
                  |         Pseudogerygone S13
                  |           |--P. fluvilateralis S13
                  |           |    |--P. f. fluvilateralis S13
                  |           |    `--P. f. lifuensis Sarasin 1913 S13
                  |           `--P. rouxi Sarasin 1913 S13
                  |--Turdinae BB05
                  `--Muscicapinae BB05

*Campicoloides bifasciatus [=Saxicola bifasciata, Oenanthe bifasciata; incl. S. spectabilis Hartlaub 1865] B93

Cinclus Borkhausen 1797 BB05, B94 [=Hydrobata Vieillot 1816 (nom. rej.) B94; incl. Accentor Bechstein 1802 B94, Aquatilis Montagu 1813 B94; Aquatilidae, Cinclidae]

Cinclus cinclus aquaticus Bechstein 1803 [incl. C. medius Brehm 1831, C. meridionalis Brehm 1856, C. peregrinus Brehm 1856, C. rupestris Brehm 1856] L03

*Cinclus cinclus cinclus (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. C. melanogaster Brehm 1822, C. cinclus sardus Hartert 1904, C. septentrionalis Brehm 1823] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[BC04] Barker, F. K., A. Cibois, P. Schikler, J. Feinstein & J. Cracraft. 2004. Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (30): 11040-11045.

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FJO08] Fleischer, R. C., H. F. James & S. L. Olson. 2008. Convergent evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific honeyeaters from distant songbird ancestors. Current Biology 18: 1-5.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[OF05] Olson, S. L., R. C. Fleischer, C. T. Fisher & E. Bermingham. 2005. Expunging the 'Mascarene starling' Necropsar leguati: archives, morphology and molecules topple a myth. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 125 (1): 31-42.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

Parus

Great tit Parus major, photographed by Luc Viatour.


Belongs within: Paridae.

Parus is a genus of tits found in Eurasia and Africa. The genus is used here in a more restricted sense than that used by many past authors.

Parus Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |  i. s.: P. bokharensis D51
    |         P. cinereus B66
    |         P. leuconotus Guérin-Méneville 1843 [incl. P. dorsatus Rüppell 1845] S05
    |         P. minor D51
    |         P. songarus SB98
    |         P. venustulus VP89
    |--+--+--P. fasciiventer JF06
    |  |  `--P. rufiventer JF06
    |  `--+--P. funereus JF06
    |     `--+--P. albiventris JF06
    |        `--P. niger JF06
    `--+--+--P. major Linnaeus 1758 JF06, M02
       |  |    |--P. m. major VP89
       |  |    `--P. m. commixtus VP89
       |  `--P. monticolus JF06
       `--+--P. afer JF06
          `--+--P. holsti JF06
             `--+--P. spilonotus JF06
                |    |--P. s. spilonotus VP89
                |    `--P. s. rex VP89
                `--P. xanthogenys JF06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568-571.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[SB98] Sturmbauer, C., B. Berger, R. Dallinger & M. Föger. 1998. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the genus Regulus and implications on the evolution of breeding behaviour in sylvioid songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10 (1): 144-149.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Sylvioidea

Golden-breasted fulvetta 'Alcippe' chrysotis, photographed by Yann Muzika.


Belongs within: Passerida.
Contains: Remizidae, Paridae, Stenostiridae, Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Pycnonotidae, Megalurinae, Acrocephalus, Aegithalidae, Phylloscopus, Cettia, Cisticolidae, Timaliidae, Sylvia, Paradoxornis.

The Sylvioidea is a clade identified by molecular analysis that includes the Old World warblers and related taxa such as tits and bulbuls. Many of these taxa have been classified in the past into the family Sylviidae, but this taxon its broader sense has been shown to be polyphyletic. Most sylvioids are small insectivorous birds. The clade is most diverse in Eurasia and Africa; relatively few lineages have reached the Americas.

Sylvioidea [Acrocephalinae, Panurinae, Paradoxornithinae, Suthorinae, Sylviidae, Sylviinae, Sylviini]
    |--+--+--Remizidae JF06
    |  |  `--Paridae JF06
    |  `--+--Stenostiridae JF06
    |     `--Chelidorhynx hypoxantha JT12
    `--+--+--Nicator JT12
       |  |    |--N. chloris JT12
       |  |    |--N. gularis JT12
       |  |    `--N. vireo JT12
       |  `--+--Alaudidae JT12
       |     `--Panurus Koch 1816 JT12, B94
       |          `--P. biarmicus JF06
       `--+--+--Macrosphenus Cassin 1859 JT12, B94 [Macrospheninae]
          |  |    |--M. concolor JT12
          |  |    |--M. flavicans JF06
          |  |    |--M. kempi JT12
          |  |    `--M. pulitzeri JT12
          |  `--+--‘Macrosphenus’ kretschmeri JT12
          |     `--+--+--Cryptillas victorini BB05 [=Bradypterus victorini JT12]
          |        |  `--+--Melocichla mentalis JT12
          |        |     `--+--Achaetops pycnopygius JT12 [=Chaetops pycnopygius BB05]
          |        |        `--Sphenoeacus afer JT12
          |        `--Sylvietta JT12
          |             |  i. s.: S. denti JF06
          |             |         S. isabellina JT12
          |             |         S. philippae JT12
          |             |         S. ruficapilla JT12
          |             |--+--S. rufescens JT12
          |             |  `--S. whytii JT12
          |             `--+--S. virens JT12
          |                `--+--S. brachyura JT12
          |                   `--S. leucophrys JT12
          `--+--+--Hirundinidae JT12
             |  `--+--+--Pycnonotidae JT12
             |     |  `--Bernieria JT12
             |     |       |  i. s.: B. major S66
             |     |       |         B. minor S66
             |     |       |--B. madagascariensis JT12 [=Phyllastrephus madagascariensis JF06]
             |     |       `--+--B. tenebrosa JT12
             |     |          `--+--B. zosterops JT12
             |     |             `--+--B. apperti JT12
             |     |                `--B. cinereiceps JT12
             |     `--+--+--Hyliota JT12
             |        |  |    |--H. australis JT12
             |        |  |    |--H. flavigaster JT12
             |        |  |    |--H. usambara JT12
             |        |  |    `--H. violacea JT12
             |        |  `--+--Amaurocichla bocagei JT12
             |        |     `--Scotocerca inquieta (Cretzschmar 1830) JT12, S05 [=Malurus inquietus S05]
             |        |          |--S. i. inquieta S05
             |        |          `--S. i. saharae (Loche 1858) S05
             |        `--+--+--Megalurinae JT12
             |           |  `--+--Donacobius JT12
             |           |     |    |--D. atricapillus (see below for synonymy) L03
             |           |     |    `--D. vociferans B94
             |           |     `--+--Xanthomixis JF06
             |           |        |    |--+--X. apperti [=Phyllastrephus apperti] JF06
             |           |        |    |  `--X. cinereiceps [=Phyllastrephus cinereiceps] JF06
             |           |        |    `--+--Crossleyia xanthophrys JT12
             |           |        |       `--X. zosterops [=Phyllastrephus zosterops] JF06
             |           |        `--+--Thamnornis chloropetoides JT12
             |           |           `--+--Oxylabes madagascariensis JT12
             |           |              `--+--‘Neomixis’ flavoviridis JT12
             |           |                 `--Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi JT12
             |           `--+--Nesillas JT12
             |              |    |--N. aldabranus HSS13
             |              |    |--N. brevicaudata JT12
             |              |    |--N. longicaudata JT12
             |              |    |--N. mariae JT12
             |              |    `--N. typica JT12
             |              `--+--Hippolais Baldenstein 1827 JT12, M02
             |                 |    |--+--H. icterina JF06
             |                 |    |  `--H. polyglotta JF06
             |                 |    `--+--H. languida JF06
             |                 |       `--H. olivetorum JF06
             |                 `--+--Acrocephalus JT12
             |                    `--+--‘Chloropeta’ gracilirostris JT12
             |                       `--+--‘Acrocephalus’ aedon JT12
             |                          `--+--+--‘Hippolais’ caligata JT12
             |                             |  `--‘Hippolais’ rama JT12
             |                             `--+--+--‘Hippolais’ opaca JT12
             |                                |  `--‘Hippolais’ pallida JT12
             |                                `--Chloropeta JT12
             |                                     |--C. natalensis JF06
             |                                     `--C. similis JT12
             `--+--+--+--Erythrocercus JT12
                |  |  |    |--E. holochlorus JT12
                |  |  |    |--E. livingstonei JT12
                |  |  |    `--E. mccallii JF06
                |  |  `--Hyliidae SPS03
                |  |       |--Hylia Cassin 1859 JT12, B94 [Hyliinae]
                |  |       |    `--H. prasina (Cassin 1855) SPS03
                |  |       `--Pholidornis Hartlaub 1857 SPS03, B94 [Pholidornithidae]
                |  |            `--P. rushiae (Cassin 1855) SPS03
                |  `--+--Aegithalidae JT12
                |     `--+--Phylloscopus JT12
                |        `--+--+--Abroscopus JT12
                |           |  |    |--A. albogularis JF06
                |           |  |    |--A. schisticeps JT12
                |           |  |    `--A. superciliaris JF06
                |           |  `--+--‘Orthotomus’ cuculatus JT12
                |           |     `--+--Tickellia hodgsoni JT12
                |           |        `--Cettia JT12
                |           `--+--‘Cettia’ cetti JT12
                |              `--+--Urosphena JT12
                |                 |    |--U. squameiceps JF06
                |                 |    |--U. subulata JT12
                |                 |    `--U. whiteheadi JT12
                |                 `--Tesia JT12
                |                      |--T. castaneocoronata JT12
                |                      |--T. cyaniventer JT12 [=Oligura cyaniventer S89]
                |                      |--T. everetti JT12
                |                      |--T. olivea JF06
                |                      `--T. superciliaris JT12
                `--+--Cisticolidae JT12
                   `--+--Timaliidae BB05
                      `--+--+--+--+--‘Alcippe’ brunneicauda JT12
                         |  |  |  `--‘Alcippe’ grotei JT12
                         |  |  `--+--‘Alcippe’ morrisonia JT12
                         |  |     |    |--A. m. morrisonia
                         |  |     |    `--A. m. hueti
                         |  |     `--‘Alcippe’ peracensis JT12
                         |  `--+--‘Alcippe’ rufogularis JT12
                         |     `--+--+--‘Alcippe’ brunnea JT12
                         |        |  |    |--A. b. brunnea
                         |        |  |    |--A. b. genestieri
                         |        |  |    `--A. b. superciliaris
                         |        |  `--‘Alcippe’ dubia JT12
                         |        `--+--‘Alcippe’ castaneiceps JT12
                         |           `--‘Alcippe’ cinerea JT12
                         `--+--Sylvia JT12
                            `--+--‘Alcippe’ chrysotis JT12
                               `--+--Paradoxornis JT12
                                  `--+--Chrysomma JT12
                                     |    |--C. altirostre JT12
                                     |    |--C. poecilotis JT12
                                     |    `--C. sinense JF06
                                     `--+--Rhopophilus pekinensis JT12
                                        `--+--‘Alcippe’ ruficapilla JT12
                                           `--+--‘Alcippe’ striaticollis JT12
                                              `--+--‘Alcippe’ vinipectus JT12
                                                 `--+--‘Alcippe’ formosana JT12
                                                    `--+--‘Alcippe’ cinereiceps JT12
                                                       `--‘Alcippe’ manipurensis JT12

Sylvioidea incertae sedis:
  Eremiornis carteri Noreth 1900 [incl. E. c. assimilis Montague 1913, E. c. rogersi Mathews 1913] WS48
  Bebrornis rodericanus FP64, USDI77
  Trichocichla rufa FP64
    |--T. r. rufa HSS13
    `--T. r. clunei HSS13
  Cichlornis grosvenori FP64
  Calamodus Kaup 1829 [incl. Calamodyta Kaup 1829; Calamodytinae] B94
    `--‘Calamodyta’ newtoni S66
  Reguloides S89
    |--R. pulcher S89
    `--R. superciliosus [=Phylloscopus superciliosus] S89
  Eroessa Hartlaub 1866 H66
    `--*E. tenella Hartlaub 1866 H66 [incl. Damia pusilla Pollen in Schlegel 1866 (n. n.) S66]
  Randia pseudozosterops JT12
  Poliolais lopezi JT12
  Chaetornis striata JT12
  Amphilais seebohmi JT12
  Buettikoferella bivittata JT12
  Graueria vittata JT12
  Hemitesia neumanni JT12

Donacobius atricapillus [=Turdus atricapillus; incl. D. albolineatus, T. brasiliensis, Mimus brasiliensis] L03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB05] Beresford, P., F. K. Barker, P. G. Ryan & T. M. Crowe. 2005. African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): Molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 272: 849-858.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[H66] Hartlaub, G. 1866. On a new genus and species of birds from Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 218-219.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1-156.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SPS03] Sefc, K. M., R. B. Payne & M. D. Sorenson. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of African sunbird-like warblers: Moho (Hyperergus atriceps), green hylia (Hylia prasina) and tit-hylia (Pholidornis rushiae). Ostrich 74: 8-17.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.