Phalacrocorax

Double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus, photographed by Larry Thompson.


Belongs within: Sulida.

Phalacrocorax is a genus of cormorants or shags. The circumscription of this genus varies significantly between authors: some would use it to cover all or almost all shags, while others restrict it to the larger black-footed species.

<==Phalacrocorax Brisson 1760 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Graculus’ africanus S66
    |--P. albiventer FST81
    |--P. aristotelis (Linnaeus 1761) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--P. atriceps FP64
    |--P. auritus M03
    |--P. bougainvillei A61
    |--P. brasilianus TB01
    |--P. campbelli FST81
    |--P. capensis FP64
    |--P. capillatus SU93
    |--P. carbo (Linnaeus 1758) WH02 [=Pelecanus carbo M02; incl. P. novaezealandiae var. major Forbes 1892 WH02]
    |    |--P. c. carbo R85
    |    |--P. c. novaehollandiae HR96
    |    |--P. c. sinensis VP89
    |    `--P. c. steadi (Mathews & Iredale 1913) R85
    |--P. carunculatus TB01
    |--P. chalconotus FST81
    |--P. colensoi FST81
    |--P. filamentosus T89
    |--P. fuscescens SJ85
    |--P. fuscicollis SU93
    |--P. gaimardi M03
    |--P. harrisi M03
    |--P. ibericus Villalta 1963 [=P. ibericum] M02
    |--P. intermedius (Milne-Edwards 1867) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--P. lautus Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
    |--P. littoralis (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Graculus littoralis, *Oligocorax littoralis] M02
    |--P. longipes (Tugarinov 1940) [=*Pliocarbo longipes] M02
    |--P. melanoleucos Gould 1837 WH02 [=Microcarbo melanoleucos HWT01]
    |    |--P. m. melanoleucos R85
    |    |--P. m. brevicauda HR96
    |    `--P. m. brevirostris Gould 1837 R85
    |--P. niger SU93
    |--P. olivaceus M03
    |--P. onslowi FST81
    |--P. pelagicus SU93
    |--P. penicillatus M03
    |--P. perspicillatus FP64
    |--P. purpurascens VR72
    |--P. pygmeus SU93 [=Microcarbo pygmaeus S89]
    |--P. ranfurlyi FST81
    |--P. serdicensis Burčak-Abramovič & Nikolov 1984 M02
    |--P. stewarti G60
    |--P. sulcirostris (Brandt 1837) R85
    |--P. urile (Gmelin 1789) I92
    |--P. varius (Gmelin 1789) WH02 [=Hypoleucos varius HWT01]
    |    |--P. v. varius HR96
    |    `--P. v. hypoleucos HR96
    `--P. wetmorei FP64

Nomen nudum: Carbo risgoviensis Fraas in Engel 1908 [=Phalacrocorax risgoviensis] M02

Phalacrocorax Brisson 1760 M02 [incl. Botaurites Ammon 1918 M02, Carbo Lacépède 1799 B94, Graculus Koch 1816 B94, Halieus Illiger 1811 B94, Oligocorax Brodkorb 1952 M02, Paracorax Lambrecht 1933 M02, Pliocarbo Tugarinov 1940 M02; Carboninae, Halieinae, Phalacrocoracinae]

Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus 1761) [=Pelecanus aristotelis; incl. Ph. destefanii Regàlia 1902, *Paracorax destefanii, Ph. destefani] M02

Phalacrocorax intermedius (Milne-Edwards 1867) [=Graculus intermedius, Miocorax intermedius; incl. *Botaurites avitus Ammon 1918, Ardea brunhuberi Ammon 1918, Phalacrocorax brunhuberi, P. praecarbo Ammon 1918] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of New Zealand shag colonies. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 363-380.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SJ85] Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[TB01] Tuinen, M. van, D. B. Butvill, J. A. W. Kirsch & S. B. Hedges. 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 268: 1345-1350.

[VR72] Vickers Rich, P. 1972. A fossil avifauna from the Upper Miocene Beglia Formation of Tunisia. Notes du Service Géologique 35: 29-66.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Sulidae

Blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii, photographed by Mariko Yuki.


Belongs within: Sulida.

The Sulidae contain the gannets and boobies, marine birds that capture fish by plunge diving. Sulids nest in colonies, sometimes very densely. The gannets of the genus Morus are found in temperate waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, while the boobies of the genus Sula are tropical in distribution. Abbott's booby Papasula abbotti is an endangered species endemic to Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean.

See also: Boobies.

Characters (from Heather & Robertson 1996): Bill sturdy and cone-shaped, with serrated cutting edges. Forehead flattened; much of face covered with bare skin. Three webbed toes, sometimes with some or all skin brightly coloured.

<==Sulidae [Dysporidae, Enkurosulidae, Pseudosulidae, Sulariidae]
    |  i. s.: Enkurosula Kašin 1977 [=Pseudosula Harrison 1975 non Boetticher 1955] M02
    |           `--*E. pygmaea (Milne-Edwards 1874) [=Sula pygmaea, Microsula pygmaea, *Pseudosula pygmaea] M02
    |         Eostega Lambrecht 1929 M02
    |           `--*E. lebedkinskyi Lambrecht 1929 M02
    |         Empheresula Harrison 1975 [=Parasula Harrison 1975 non Mathews 1913] M02
    |           `--*E. arvernensis (Milne-Edwards 1867) [=Sula arvernensis, *Parasula arvernensis] M02
    |         Sarmatosula Grigorescu & Kessler 1977 M02
    |           `--*S. dobrogensis Grigorescu & Kessler 1977 M02
    |--Masillastega Mayr 2002 M05
    `--+--+--Papasula abbotti JT12
       |  `--Morus Vieillot 1816 JT12, M02
       |       |  i. s.: M. olsoni Grigorescu & Kessler 1988 M02
       |       |--M. bassanus JT12
       |       `--+--M. capensis JT12
       |          `--M. serrator (Gray 1843) JT12, WH02
       `--Sula Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Dysporus Illiger 1811 B94, Prophalacrocorax Harrison 1975 M02]
            |  i. s.: S. abbotti FP64
            |         S. bassana R85
            |           |--S. b. bassana R85
            |           `--S. b. serrator Gray 1843 R85 [=Pelecanus serrator WS48]
            |         S. capensis FST81
            |         S. fiber D66
            |         S. guano FP64
            |         S. ronzoni (Gervais 1848-1852) FP64, M02 [=Mergus ronzoni M02, *Prophalacrocorax ronzoni M02]
            |--S. sula JT12
            |    |--S. s. sula I92
            |    `--S. s. rubripes Gould 1838 I92
            `--+--S. leucogaster (Boddaert 1783) JT12, WS48 [=Pelecanus leucogaster WS48]
               |    |--S. l. leucogaster R85
               |    `--S. l. plotus (Forster 1844) [=Pelecanus plotus; incl. S. leucogaster rogersi Mathews 1913] WS48
               `--+--+--S. dactylatra Lesson 1831 JT12, WH02 [incl. S. tasmani van Tets, Meredith et al. 1988 WH02]
                  |  |    |--S. d. dactylatra I92
                  |  |    `--S. d. personata Gould 1846 I92 (see below for synonymy)
                  |  `--S. granti JT12
                  `--+--S. nebouxii JT12
                     `--S. variegata JT12

Nomen nudum: Sula rozieri Lucazeau 1959 M02

Sula dactylatra personata Gould 1846 I92 [incl. S. d. bedouti Mathews 1913 WS48, S. d. fullagari HR96]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Threskiornithidae

African spoonbill Platalea alba, photographed by Callie de Wet.


Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Threskiornithidae include the ibises and spoonbills, long-legged and -billed wading birds that generally feed on small invertebrates. Previous authors have recognised the ibises, with downcurved bills, as a separate subfamily (Threskiornithinae) from the spoonbills (Plataleinae) with straight and distinctly spatulate bills; however, the former may be paraphyletic to the latter. The Old World spoonbills of the genus Platalea are mostly white in colouration, while the roseate spoonbill Ajaja ajaja of the Americas is extensively coloured with pink. Among the ibises, the type genus Threskiornis includes the sacred ibises, a cluster of species with white plumage and featherless black heads and necks (T. aethiopicus, T. bernieri, T. melanocephalus and T. molucca). Authors differ on whether these should be treated as separate species or geographic races of a single species.

<==Threskiornithidae [Ibididae, Ibidinae, Plataleidae, Plegadidae, Threskiornithinae, Threskiornithoidea]
    |  i. s.: *Ajaja ajaja FP64
    |         Bostrychia JT12
    |           |--B. bocagei JT12
    |           |--B. carunculata (Rüppell 1837) [=Ibis carunculata] S05
    |           |--B. hagedash JT12
    |           |--B. olivacea JT12
    |           `--B. rara JT12
    |         Comatibus eremita RN72
    |         Thaumatibis gigantea SU93
    |         Pseudibis JT12
    |           |--P. davisoni JT12 [=P. papillosa davisoni SU93]
    |           `--P. papillosa SU93
    |         Hagedashia hagedash M03
    |         Lophotibis cristata M03
    |         Harpiprion caerulescens EA06
    |         Rhynchaeites Wittich 1899 [incl. Plumumida Hoch 1980] M02
    |           `--*R. messelensis Wittich 1898 M02, M05 [incl. *Plumumida lutetialis Hoch 1980 M02]
    |         Borbonibis latipes FS01
    |         Protibis cnemialis Ameghino 1891 A94
    |         Cercibis oxycerca JT12
    |         Mesembrinibis cayennensis JT12
    |--+--+--Eudocimus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [Eudociminae]
    |  |  |    |--E. albus [=Ibis albus] B94
    |  |  |    `--E. ruber M03 [=Ibis rubra B66, I. rubus B94]
    |  |  `--Theristicus JT12
    |  |       |--T. caerulescens JT12
    |  |       |--T. caudatus EA06
    |  |       `--T. hagedash K08
    |  `--+--‘Theristicus’ melanopis JT12
    |     `--+--Phimosus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [Phimosinae]
    |        |    `--P. infuscatus JT12
    |        `--Geronticus Wagler 1832 JT12, M02 [Geronticinae]
    |             |--G. apelex Olson 1985 B93
    |             |--G. calvus JT12
    |             |--G. eremita (Linnaeus 1758) S05 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |--G. olivaceus D66
    |             |--G. perplexus (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Ardea perplexa, Proardea perplexa] M02
    |             `--G. spinicollis Scl66
    `--+--Plegadis Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |  i. s.: P. paganus (Milne-Edwards 1868) (see below for synonymy) M02
       |    |--P. ridgwayi JT12
       |    `--+--P. chihi JT12
       |       `--P. falcinellus (Linné 1766) JT12, R85 [=Tantalus falcinellus WS48]
       |            |--P. f. falcinellus WS48
       |            `--P. f. peregrinus (Bonaparte 1855) (see below for synonymy) WS48
       `--+--‘Platalea’ ajaja JT12
          `--+--Nipponia nippon (Temminck 1835) JT12, I92
             `--+--Platalea Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [Plataleinae]
                |    |  i. s.: P. flavipes Gould 1838 R85
                |    |         P. regia Gould 1838 JT12, R85 [=P. leucorodia regia R85]
                |    |         P. telfairi Sch66
                |    |--P. alba JT12
                |    `--+--P. leucorodia Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
                |       `--P. minor Temminch & Schlegel 1849 JT12, I92
                `--Threskiornis Gray 1842 [incl. Ibis Cuvier 1816 non Lacépède 1799] B94
                     |--*T. aethiopicus (Latham 1790) [=Tantalus aethiopicus, *Ibis aethiopicus] B94
                     |    |--T. a. aethiopicus WS48
                     |    `--T. a. strictipennis (Gould 1838) WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                     |--T. bernieri JT12
                     |    |--T. b. bernieri HSS13
                     |    `--T. b. abbotti HSS13
                     |--T. melanocephalus (Latham 1790) I92
                     |--T. molucca (Cuvier 1829) R85
                     |--T. solitarius HSS13
                     `--T. spinicollis (Jameson 1835) (see below for synonymy) WS48

Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus 1758) S05 [=Upupa eremita M02; incl. G. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02, Ibis comata Rüppell 1837 (n. n.) S05, G. comatus Rüppell 1845 S05]

Plegadis Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 [incl. Falcinellus Vieillot 1816 B94, Milnea Lydekker 1891 non Reichenbach 1866 M02; Falcinellinae, Plegadinae]

Plegadis falcinellus peregrinus (Bonaparte 1855) [=Ibis peregrina; incl. P. falcinellus rogersi Mathews 1916] WS48

Plegadis paganus (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Ibis pagana, Actiornis pagana, Eudocimus paganus; incl. *Milnea gracilis Lydekker 1891] M02

Threskiornis aethiopicus strictipennis (Gould 1838) WS48 [=Ibis strictipennis WS48, T. molucca strictipennis HR96]

Threskiornis spinicollis (Jameson 1835) [=Ibis spinicollis; incl. Carphibis spinicollis fitzroyi Mathews 1912] WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11-12): 501-602.

[B66] Bartlett, A. D. 1866. Notes on the breeding of several species of birds in the Society's gardens during the year 1865. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 76-79.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of recent additions to the Society's menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 418-419.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

Pelecanidae

Great white pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, photographed by Hamed Saber.


Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Pelecanidae includes the pelicans, distinctive large fishing birds with elongate bills subtended by an expansive gular pouch. Pelicans use this pouch to scoop up water containing fish, straining it out and then swallowing their prey. All living species are included in the genus Pelecanus, with other genera known from the fossil record. Among modern pelicans, the two dark-coloured species, the brown pelican P. occidentalis and Peruvian pelican P. thagus, are distinctive in plunge-diving for prey, while the remaining mostly white or grey species usually catch fish while swimming on the water's surface.

<==Pelecanidae [Pelecanida, Pelicanea, Pelicanidae]
    |--Liptornis Ameghino 1894 A94
    |    `--*L. hesternus Ameghino 1894 A94
    |--Miopelecanus Cheneval 1984 M02
    |    |--*M. gracilis (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Pelecanus gracilis] M02
    |    `--M. intermedius (Fraas 1870) [=Pelecanus intermedius; incl. P. fraasi Lydekker 1891] M02
    `--Pelecanus Linnaeus 1758 M02
         |  i. s.: P. odessanus Vidgal’m 1886 M02
         |         P. philippensis SU93
         |         P. rufescens M03
         |         P. thagus FMB03
         |--+--P. crispus JT12
         |  `--P. onocrotalus Linnaeus 1758 JT12, S05 [incl. P. minor Rüppell 1837 non Gmelin 1789 S05, P. roseus SU93]
         `--+--P. conspicillatus Temminck 1824 JT12, W04 (see below for synonymy)
            `--+--P. erythrorhynchos JT12
               `--P. occidentalis JT12

Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck 1824 JT12, W04 [incl. P. conspicillatus novaezealandiae Scarlett 1966 WH02, P. spectabilis Salvado 1851 WS48, P. conspicillatus westralis Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11-12): 501-602.

[FMB03] Frey, E., D. M. Martill & M.-C. Buchy. 2003. A new crested ornithocheirid from the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil and the unusual death of an unusual pterosaur. In Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds) Geological Society Special Publications 217: 55-63. The Geological Society: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[W04] Worthy, T. H. 2004. The Holocene fossil waterfowl fauna of Lake Poukawa, North Island, New Zealand. Tuhinga 15: 77-120.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Ardea

Great blue heron Ardea herodias, photographed by Walter Siegmund.


Belongs within: Ardeidae.

The genus Ardea contains the larger herons. Ardea species are generally (but not always) darker than the egrets of the genus Egretta, and lack powder down patches on the thighs. They are generally solitary nesters (Heather & Robertson 1996). Authors have differed over the assignment of some herons species to Ardea or to related genera such as Egretta, but the core members of Ardea include species related to the grey heron A. cinerea and the purple heron A. purpurea.

<==Ardea Linnaeus 1758 M02
    |--A. pacifica Latham 1801 JT12, R85 [=Notophoyx pacifica WS48]
    `--+--A. cocoi JT12
       `--+--A. cinerea Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
          `--A. herodias JT12

Ardea incertae sedis:
  A. agami [incl. Agamia picta] SS66
  A. atricapilla D66
  A. atricollis S66
  A. aurelianensis Milne-Edwards 1871 M02
  A. goliath M03
  A. gularis D66
  A. humbloti JT12
  A. ibis J06 [incl. A. bubulcus S66, A. ruficrista S66]
    |--A. i. ibis J06
    `--A. i. coromanda J06
  A. imperialis SU93
  A. insignis JT12
  A. leucoptera [incl. A. idae] S66
  A. melanocephala JT12
  A. novaehollandiae Latham 1790 R85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. n. novaehollandiae HR96
    `--A. n. nana HR96
  A. picata Gould 1845 JT12, WS48 [=A. (Herodias) picata WS48, Notophoyx picata WS48]
  A. piveteaui Brunet 1970 M02
  A. purpurea M03
  A. rupeliensis Beneden 1873 M02
  A. schistacea S66
  A. sturmi [=Ardetta sturmi] K08
  A. sumatrana Raffles 1822 WS48
    |--A. s. sumatrana WS48
    `--A. s. mathewsae Mathews 1912 [incl. A. s. gilberti Mathews 1912] WS48
  A. torra S89

Ardea novaehollandiae Latham 1790 R85 [=Notophoyx novaehollandiae WS48; incl. N. novaehollandiae parryi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Nomina nuda: Ardea effosa Meyer in Lepsius 1883 M02
             Ardea latipes Meyer in Lepsius 1883 M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. On some additions to the catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Ucayali. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 566-567.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

Egretta

Little egret Egretta garzetta, from here.


Belongs within: Ardeidae.

The genus Egretta contains the egrets, colonially-breeding herons that are known for the feathery plumes which they grow in the breeding season. They also possess powder-down patches on the thighs in addition to those on the breast and rump (Heather & Robertson 1996). Many egrets are white in colouration, but the genus also includes darker-coloured species such as the white-faced heron Egretta novaehollandiae and the little blue heron E. caerulea.

<==Egretta Forster 1817 M02 [incl. Herodius Boie 1822 B94; Herodiini]
    |--+--E. caerulea JT12
    |  `--+--E. rufescens JT12
    |     `--E. tricolor JT12
    `--+--E. novaehollandiae JT12
       `--+--E. eulophotes (Swinhoe 1860) JT12, I92
          `--+--E. garzetta Linnaeus 1766 JT12, M02 [=Ardea garzetta Mo03; incl. A. elegans S66, A. xanthopoda S66]
             |    |--E. g. garzetta WS48
             |    |--E. g. immaculata (Gould 1846) [=Herodias immaculata] WS48
             |    |--E. g. nigripes HR96
             |    `--E. g. schistacea SU93
             `--E. thula JT12

Egretta incertae sedis:
  E. ardesiaca JT12
  ‘Herodias’ egretta SS66
  E. gularis Ma03
  E. ibis SJ85
  E. intermedia (Wagler 1829) [=Ardea intermedia] WS48
    |--E. i. intermedia HR96
    |--E. i. brachyrhyncha HR96
    `--E. i. plumifera (Gould 1847) [=Herodias plumifera] WS48
  E. picata SU93
  E. sacra (Gmelin 1789) WH02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. s. sacra HR96
    `--E. s. albolineata HR96 [=Ardea albolineata S13, Herodias albolineata S13]
  E. vinaceigula JT12

Nomen nudum: Egretta brevipes Verr. & Murs 1862 S13

Egretta sacra (Gmelin 1789) WH02 [=Ardea sacra Mo03, Demigretta sacra WS48; incl. D. matook carteri Mathews 1920 WS48, D. sacra tormenti Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[Ma03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[Mo03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175-201.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SJ85] Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Ardeidae

Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, photographed by Ashok Khosla.


Belongs within: Neoaves.
Contains: Ixobrychus, Egretta, Butorides, Ardea.

The Ardeidae include the herons and bitterns, long-billed and -legged fishing birds found worldwide. Basal members of the family include the tiger herons Tigrisoma of South America, which resemble bitterns in their cryptic colouration and booming mating calls. The night herons of the genus Nycticorax are relatively short-necked and stout herons, generally with a dark crown and paler underparts; as indicated by their vernacular name, they are mostly nocturnal in habits. The boatbill heron Cochlearius cochlearius is a Neotropical species with a similar habitus to the night-herons Nycticorax but with a unique broad beak; several authors classify it in its own family, outside the Ardeidae.

See also: The stately herons.

Characters (from Heather & Robertson 1996): Bill straight, dagger-like; neck long, often kinked. Tail short. Powder down patches peresent on breast, rump and sometimes thighs. Centre forward-directed toe with serrations along side, used for grooming.

<==Ardeidae [Ardeae, Ardeiformes, Botaurinae, Tigriornithini] JT12
    |--Calcardea junnei JM14
    |--Proardea Lambrecht 1933 JM14, M02
    |    `--*P. amissa (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Ardea amissa, Egretta amissa] M02
    |--Proardeola Harrison 1979 JM14, M02
    |    `--*P. walkeri Harrison 1979 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--Tigrisoma JT12
       |    |--T. brasiliense SS66
       |    |--T. cabanisi SS66
       |    |--T. fasciatum JT12
       |    |--T. lineatum EA06
       |    `--T. mexicanum JT12
       `--+--Cochlearius Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Cancroma Linné 1766 B94; Cancromini, Cochleariidae, Cochleariini]
          |    `--C. cochlearius FS55
          |         |--C. c. cochlearius FS55
          |         `--C. c. zeledoni FS55
          `--+--+--Ixobrychus JT12
             |  `--Zebrilus Bonaparte 1855 JT12, B94 [Zebrilini]
             |       `--Z. undulatus JT12
             `--Ardeinae [Ardeini] B94
                  |  i. s.: ‘Anas’ basaltica Bayer 1883 M02, M05
                  |--+--Syrigma sibilatrix JT12
                  |  `--Egretta JT12
                  `--+--+--+--Butorides JT12
                     |  |  `--Ardeola Boie 1822 [Ardeolini] BKB15, B94
                     |  |       |--A. bacchus (Bonap. 1855) [=Buphus bacchus] M01
                     |  |       |--A. grayii Ma03
                     |  |       |--A. idae JT12
                     |  |       |--A. ralloides (Scopoli 1769) M02
                     |  |       |--A. rufiventris JT12
                     |  |       `--A. speciosa Mo03
                     |  `--+--Ardea BKB15
                     |     `--+--Bubulcus Bonaparte 1855 BKB15, B94 [Bubulcini]
                     |        |    `--*B. ibis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                     |        |         |--B. i. ibis R85
                     |        |         |--B. i. coromandus (Boddaert 1783) R85 (see below for synonymy)
                     |        |         `--‘Ardeola’ i. seychellarum L81
                     |        `--+--Casmerodius Gloger 1841 JT12, CC10 [=Cosmerodius Salvadori 1882 CC10]
                     |           |    `--C. albus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
                     |           `--Mesophoyx Sharpe 1894 JT12, CC10
                     |                `--*M. intermedia (Wagler 1829) [=Ardea intermedia, Egretta intermedia] CC10
                     |                     |--M. i. intermedia HR96
                     |                     |--‘Egretta’ i. brachyrhyncha HR96
                     |                     `--M. i. plumifera (Gould 1848) (see below for synonymy) CC10
                     `--+--Nyctanassa violacea JT12
                        `--Nycticorax Forster 1817 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                             |--N. nycticorax [incl. *N. infaustus] CC10
                             |    |--N. n. nycticorax S18
                             |    `--N. n. naevius S18
                             |--N. caledonicus (Gmelin 1789) [=Ardea caledonica] WS48
                             |    |--N. c. caledonicus I92
                             |    |--N. c. australasiae (Vieillot 1823) (see below for synonymy) CC10
                             |    `--N. c. crassirostris Vigors 1839 I92
                             |--N. duboisi HSS13
                             |--N. gardeni SS66
                             |--N. leuconotus [incl. Ardea cucullata, *Calherodius cucullatus] CC10
                             |--N. mauritianus FS01
                             `--N. megacephalus FS01

Ardeidae incertae sedis:
  Pilherodius pileatus PT03
  Gorsachius SU93
    |--G. goisagi (Temminck 1835) I92
    |--G. leuconotus JT12
    |--G. magnificus SU93
    `--G. melanolophus (Raffles 1822) I92
  Melanophoyx ardesiaca A61
  Dichromanassa rufescens A61
  Hydranassa A61
    |--H. caerulea A61
    `--H. tricolor S18
         |--H. t. tricolor S18
         `--H. t. ruficollis S18
  Agamia agami Ma03
  Proherodius Lydekker 1891 FP64, M02
    `--*P. oweni Lydekker 1891 M02
  Heterocnus cabanisi FS55
  Ardeagrandis Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
    `--*A. arborea Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
  Zonerodius heliosylus JT12
  Tigriornis Sharpe 1895 B94
    `--T. leucolopha JT12
  Florida caerulea S18

*Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Ardea ibis CC10, Ardeola ibis CC10, Egretta ibis CC10; incl. Ardea ruficrista S66]

Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert 1783) R85 [=Cancroma coromanda CC10, Ardea ibis coromanda J06, Ardea coromandeliensis Stephens 1819 CC10, Ardeola ibis coromanda L81, Bubulcus coromandensis Bonaparte 1855 CC10, Egretta ibis coromanda CC10; incl. Ardea affinis Horsfield 1820 CC10, Ardea bubulcus Gray & Gray 1846 CC10, Ardea caboga Franklin 1832 CC10, Ardea flavirostris Vieillot 1823 CC10, Herodias flavirostris CC10, Ardea russata Wagler 1827 CC10]

Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, WH02 [=Ardea alba WS48, Egretta alba WH02, Herodias alba K08; incl. Ardea egretta Gmelin 1789 CC10, *Casmerodius albus egretta CC10, A61]

Mesophoyx intermedia plumifera (Gould 1848) [=Herodias plumiferus, Ardea intermedia plumifera, Egretta intermedia plumifera] CC10

Nycticorax Forster 1817 JT12, B94 [incl. Calherodius Bonaparte 1855 CC10; Nycticoracinae, Nycticoracini]

Nycticorax caledonicus australasiae (Vieillot 1823) [=Ardea australasiae; incl. N. caledonicus hilli Mathews 1912, A. maculata Latham 1802 non Gmelin 1789, A. novaehollandiae Vieillot 1817 non Latham 1790] CC10

*Proardeola walkeri Harrison 1979 M02 [=Ardeola walkeri M02, Proardea walkeri JM14; incl. Ardea formosa Milne-Edwards 1871 (n. n.) M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543–547.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JM14] Jarvis, E. D., S. Mirarab, A. J. Aberer, B. Li, P. Houde, C. Li, S. Y. W. Ho, B. C. Faircloth, B. Nabholz, J. T. Howard, A. Suh, C. C. Weber, R. R. de Fonseca, J. Li, F. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhou, N. Narula, L. Liu, G. Ganapathy, B. Boussau, M. S. Bayzid, V. Zavidovych, S. Subramanian, T. Gabaldón, S. Capella-Gutiérrez, J. Huerta-Cepas, B. Rekepalli, K. Munch, M. Schierup, B. Lindow, W. C. Warren, D. Ray, R. E. Green, M. W. Bruford, X. Zhan, A. Dixon, S. Li, N. Li, Y. Huang, E. P. Derryberry, M. F. Bertelsen, F. H. Sheldon, R. T. Brumfield, C. V. Mello, P. V. Lovell, M. Wirthlin, M. P. Cruz Schneider, F. Prosdocimi, J. A. Samaniego, A. M. Vargas Velazquez, A. Alfaro-Núñez, P. F. Campos, B. Petersen, T. Sitcheritz-Ponten, A. Pas, T. Bailey, P. Scofield, M. Bunce, D. M. Lambert, Q. Zhou, P. Perelman, A. C. Driskell, B. Shapiro, Z. Xiong, Y. Zeng, S. Liu, Z. Li, B. Liu, K. Wu, J. Xiao, X. Yinqi, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Wang, L. Smeds, F. E. Rheindt, M. Braun, J. Fjeldså, L. Orlando, F. K. Barker, K. A. Jønsson, W. Johnson, K.-P. Koepfli, S. O'Brien, D. Haussler, O. A. Ryder, C. Rahbek, E. Willerslev, G. R. Graves, T. C. Glenn, J. McCormack, D. Burt, H. Ellegren, P. Alström, S. V. Edwards, A. Stamatakis, D. P. Mindell, J. Cracraft, E. L. Braun, T. Warnow, W. Jun, M. T. P. Gilbert & G. Zhang. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346 (6215): 1320–1331.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[Ma03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157–175.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[Mo03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[PT03] Prum, R. O., & R. Torres. 2003. Structural colouration of avian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 2409–2429.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Anserinae

Mute swan Cygnus olor, photographed by Andrew Dunn.


Belongs within: Anatidae.
Contains: Branta, Anser.

The Anserinae contains the swans and (the majority of the) geese. In general, Anserinae have longer necks than most other waterfowl, and more robust, less flattened bills. However, recent phylogenetic analyses (e.g. Burleigh et al. 2015) place the pink-eared duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus of Australia as a basal anserine despite its short neck and broadly flattened bill. Also placed within the Anserinae are the coscoroba Coscoroba coscoroba, a white swan-like bird from southern South America, and the Cape Barren goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae of southern Australia. The swans of the genus Cygnus are particularly large and long-necked birds. The majority of swan species are found in higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and are predominantly white in coloration. However, distinctive in both distribution and coloration are the black swan Cygnus atratus of Australia and the black-necked swan C. melancoryphus of South America.

See also: Coscoroba.

<==Anserinae [Anseriinae, Anserina, Cygnopsidinae]
    |  i. s.: Geochen rhuax (n. d.) PJ02
    |--+--Malacorhynchus Swainson 1831 BKB15, B94 [Malacorhynchini]
    |  |    |--*M. membranaceus (Latham 1802) [=Anas membranacea; incl. M. membranaceus assimilis Mathews 1912] CC10
    |  |    `--M. scarletti Olson 1977 W04
    |  `--+--Coscoroba Reichenbach 1853 BKB15, B94 [Coscorobinae]
    |     |    `--C. coscoroba FP64
    |     `--Cereopsini [Cereopsina] CC10
    |          |--Cereopsis Latham 1802 JT12, CC10 [Cereopseinae]
    |          |    `--*C. novaehollandiae Latham 1802 (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |          `--Cnemiornis Owen 1866 [Cnemiornithidae] CC10
    |               |--*C. calcitrans Owen 1866 (see below for synonymy) CC10
    |               `--C. gracilis Forbes 1892 [incl. C. septentrionalis Oliver 1955] WH02
    `--+--Anserini CC10
       |    |--Branta SC99
       |    `--+--+--‘Chen’ canagica BKB15
       |       |  `--Anser BKB15
       |       `--Chen BKB15
       |            |--C. caerulescens A61
       |            `--C. rossii JT12
       `--Cygnus Bechstein 1803 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
            |  i. s.: C. atavus (Fraas 1870) (see below for synonymy) M02
            |         C. herenthalsi Beneden in Lambrecht 1933 [=C. herrenthalsi] M02
            |         C. verae Boev 2000 M02
            |         C. (Olor Wagler 1832) M02
            |           |--C. (O.) bewickii Yarrell 1830 (see below for synonymy) M02
            |           |--C. (O.) csakvarensis Lambrecht 1933 [=*Cygnanser csakvarensis] M02
            |           |--C. (O.) equitum Bate 1916 [=Anser equitum, C. (Cygnus) equitum] M02
            |           `--C. (O.) falconeri Parker 1865 (see below for synonymy) M02
            |--C. melancoryphus JT12
            `--+--+--*C. (Cygnus) olor (Gmelin 1789) CC10, JT12, M02 [=Anas olor M02]
               |  `--C. atratus (Latham 1790) JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
               `--+--C. buccinator JT12 [=Olor buccinator L81]
                  `--+--C. columbianus JT12
                     |    |--C. c. columbianus I92
                     |    `--C. c. jankowskii Alpheraky 1904 I92
                     `--C. cygnus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Anas cygnus]

*Cereopsis novaehollandiae Latham 1802 [=C. cinerea Vieillot 1816; incl. C. australis Swainson 1837, C. novaehollandiae georgi Mathews 1912, C. novaehollandiae grisea Storr 1980, Anser griseus Vieillot 1818, C. novaezealandiae Oliver 1955 non Forbes 1892, Anas terraeleeuwin Bennett 1830] CC10

*Cnemiornis calcitrans Owen 1866 [incl. Cn. minor Forbes 1892, Cereopsis novaezealandiae Forbes 1892] CC10

Cygnus Bechstein 1803 SC99, CC10 [incl. Chenopis Wagler 1832 CC10, Cygnanser Kretzoi 1957 M02, Palaeocycnus Stejneger 1882 M02, Palaeocygnus Oberholser 1908 M02; Cygnina, Cygninae, Olorinae]

Cygnus atavus (Fraas 1870) [=Anas atava, Anser atavus; incl. Anas cygniformis Fraas 1870, Anser cygniformis, Palaelodus steinheimensis Fraas 1870] M02

Cygnus atratus (Latham 1790) JT12, WH02 [=Anas atrata WS48, *Chenopis atrata CC10, Chenopis atratus CC10, Chenopsis (l. c.) atratus CC10, Chenopsis (l. c.) atratus CC10; incl. Cygnus chathamicus Oliver 1955 CC10, Cy. chathamensis CC10, Cy. chathamica CC10, Anas cygnus niger Perry 1811 CC10, A. plutonia Shaw 1792 CC10, Cygnus plutonius CC10, Chenopis atrata roberti Mathews 1912 WS48, Chenopis sumnerensis Forbes 1890 CC10, Cygnus sumnerensis WH02]

Cygnus (Olor) bewickii Yarrell 1830 [incl. Anser liskunae Kuročkin 1976, Olor liskunae, A. subanser Jánossy 1983] M02

Cygnus (Olor) falconeri Parker 1865 [=*Palaeocycnus falconeri, *Palaeocygnus falconeri; incl. Cygnus melitensis Falconer 1868] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[PJ02] Paxinos, E. E., H. F. James, S. L. Olson, M. D. Sorenson, J. Jackson & R. C. Fleischer. 2002. MtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 1399–1404.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187–2193.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

[W04] Worthy, T. H. 2004. The Holocene fossil waterfowl fauna of Lake Poukawa, North Island, New Zealand. Tuhinga 15: 77–120.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Anatidae

Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor, photographed by Duncan Wright.


Belongs within: Anseriformes.
Contains: Anserinae, Anatinae.

The family Anatidae contains the waterfowl: ducks, geese and swans. They are swimming birds with relatively short legs, front toes connected by a web, rather long necks and broad bills (Austin 1961). Recent phylogenies agree in placing the whistling ducks of the Dendrocygninae as the sister taxon to the remaining anatids; these are a group of relatively long-legged ducks found in the tropics and subtropics, named for their whistling cries in flight. Of somewhat more uncertain affinities are the stiff-tailed ducks of the Oxyurini, highly aquatic small ducks with thick necks. The feet of stiff-tailed ducks are placed particularly far back on the body, meaning they can move only awkwardly on land (Austin 1961).

<==Anatidae [Anseridae, Lamellirostres, Mergidae]
    |--+--Biziura Stephens in Shaw 1824 BKB15, CC10 [Biziurinae]
    |  |    |--B. lobata (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1796) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    `--B. delautouri Forbes 1892 [=B. lautouri Forbes 1892] CC10
    |  `--+--+--Anserinae SC99
    |     |  `--Oxyurini [Erismaturinae, Oxyurinae] SC99
    |     |       |  i. s.: Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988 CC10, M05
    |     |       |           |--*M. blanchardi (Milne-Edwards 1863) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |     |       |           |--M. natator (Milne-Edwards 1867) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |     |       |           `--M. robusta (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Anas robusta, Anserobranta robusta] M02
    |     |       |         Manuherikia Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           |--*M. lacustrina Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           |--M. douglasi Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2008 CC10
    |     |       |           `--M. minuta Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |         Dunstanetta Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           `--*D. johnstoneorum Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |--Nettapus Brandt 1836 JT12, B94 [incl. Cheniscus Eyton 1838 B94; Cheniscinae, Nettapodinae]
    |     |       |    |  i. s.: N. auratus M07
    |     |       |    |--N. pulchellus Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [incl. Cheniscus pulchellus rogersi Mathews 1916 WS48]
    |     |       |    `--+--N. coromandelianus JT12
    |     |       |       `--Heteronetta Salvadori 1865 BKB15, B94 [Heteronettinae]
    |     |       |            `--H. atricapilla FP64
    |     |       `--+--Nomonyx dominicus BKB15
    |     |          `--Oxyura Bonaparte 1828 BKB15, B94 [=Erismatura Bonaparte 1832 B94]
    |     |               |  i. s.: O. doksana Mlíkovský 2002 M02
    |     |               |         O. vantetsi Worthy 2005 CC10
    |     |               |--O. vittata JT12
    |     |               `--+--+--O. ferruginea BKB15
    |     |                  |  `--O. jamaicensis JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |                  `--+--O. leucocephala (Scopoli 1769) BKB15, M02 [=Anas leucocephala M02]
    |     |                     `--+--O. australis Gould 1837 BKB15, CC10
    |     |                        `--O. maccoa BKB15
    |     `--Anatinae SC99
    `--Dendrocygninae [Dendrocygnidae, Dendrocygnini] SC99
         |--Thalassornis Eyton 1838 [Thalassornithinae] B94
         |    `--T. leuconotus JT12
         |--Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931 M02
         |    |--*C. senckenbergi Lambrecht 1931 [incl. Cygnopterus alphonsi Cheneval 1984] M02
         |    `--C. formosus Kuročkin 1968 M02
         `--Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 [incl. Leptotarsis Eyton 1838] CC10
              |  i. s.: D. fulva S66
              |         D. major S66
              |         D. vagans [incl. D. gouldi] S66
              |         D. virgata S66
              |--+--D. arborea JT12
              |  `--D. autumnalis JT12
              `--+--D. viduata BKB15
                 `--+--D. eytoni (Eyton 1838) BKB15, R85 (see below for synonymy)
                    `--+--D. bicolor BKB15
                       `--+--D. guttata BKB15
                          `--+--*D. arcuata (Horsfield 1824) CC10, BKB15, WS48 [=Anas arcuata WS48]
                             |    |--D. a. arcuata WS48
                             |    `--D. a. australis Reichenbach 1850 [incl. D. javanica peroni Mathews 1912] WS48
                             `--D. javanica BKB15

Anatidae incertae sedis:
  Philacte canagica A61
  Eonessa anaticula FP64
  Camptorhynchus labradorius CG99
  Dendrochen Miller 1944 M02
    `--*D. robusta Miller 1944 M02
  Chendytes lawi CG99
  Paracygnopterus Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    `--*P. scotti Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
  Chenalopex jubatus SS66
  Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931 M02
    `--*C. affinis (Beneden 1883) (see below for synonymy) M02
  Eoneornis Ameghino 1894 A94
    `--*E. australis Ameghino 1894 A94
  Eutelornis Ameghino 1894 A94
    `--*E. patagonicus Ameghino 1894 A94
  Eunetta falcata L81

Biziura lobata (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1796) CC10 [=Anas lobata WS48; incl. *B. novaehollandiae CC10, B. lobata westralis Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Cygnopterus affinis (Beneden 1883) [=Sula affinis; incl. Palaeopapia hamsteadiensis Harrison & Walker 1979] M02

Dendrocygna eytoni (Eyton 1838) BKB15, R85 [=*Leptotarsis eytoni CC10; incl. D. eytoni munna Mathews 1912 CC10]

*Mionetta blanchardi (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Anas blanchardi, Dendrochen blanchardi; incl. Fuligula arvernensis Lydekker 1891, Aythya arvernensis, Anas consobrina Milne-Edwards 1867, Dendrochen consobrina, Mionetta consobrina, Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards 1871 (n. n.), Palaeortyx phasianoides Milne-Edwards 1869, Taoperdix phasianoides] M02

Mionetta natator (Milne-Edwards 1867) [=Anas natator, Dendrochen natator, Querquedula natator] M02

Oxyura jamaicensis JT12 [incl. Anas rubidus CC10, *Erismatura rubida CC10, *Oxyura rubida CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11–12): 501–602.

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M07] Mironov, S. V. 2007. Phylogeny of the feather mite family Alloptidae (Astigmata, Analgoidea) and coevolutionary trends with aquatic birds. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 617–633. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Additional notes on the Anatidae of the genera Dendrocygna and Tadorna. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 148–150.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187–2193.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.