Galictis

Little grison Galictis cuja, photographed by Ken Erickson.


Belongs within: Mustelidae.

The genus Galictis contains the grisons, mustelids found in Central and South America. Grisons have a distinctive colour pattern, with black face and underparts separated from the grey or brown back by a white stripe across the forehead. The little grison Galictis cuja is smaller and lighter in coloration (yellowish-grey or brown rather than smoky grey) than the grison G. vittata, and found at higher altitudes.

<==Galictis Bell 1826 [incl. Grisonia Gray 1865; Grisoninae] C57
    |--G. (Galictis) [incl. Grison Allen 1902] C57
    |    |--*G. (G.) vittata (Schreber 1776) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--G. v. vittata [incl. Mustela gujanensis Bechstein 1800] C57
    |    |    |--G. v. andica Thomas 1903 [=Grison andinus] C57
    |    |    `--G. v. brasiliensis (Thunberg 1820) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    `--G. (G.) allamandi Bell 1841 G69, C57 [=Grisson allamandi C57]
    |         |--G. a. allamandi G69
    |         `--G. a. canaster Nelson 1901 G69, C57 [=Ga. vittata canaster C57, Grison canaster C57]
    `--G. (Grisonella Thomas 1912) C57
         `--G. (G.) cuja (Molina 1782) [=Mustela cuja, Grison (G.) cuja, Viverra cuja] C57
              |--G. c. cuja (see below for synonymy) C57
              |--G. (*G.) c. furax (Thomas 1907) (see below for synonymy) C57
              |--G. c. huronax (Thomas 1921) [=Grisonella huronax] C57
              `--G. c. luteola (Thomas 1907) [=Grison furax luteolus] C57

*Galictis (Galictis) vittata (Schreber 1776) [=Viverra vittata, Grison vittatus, Grisonia vittata, Gulo vittatus, Lutra vittata, Mustela vittata] C57

Galictis (Galictis) vittata brasiliensis (Thunberg 1820) [=Ursus brasiliensis, Grison vittatus brasiliensis; incl. Galictis crassidens Nehring 1885, Ga. intermedia Lund 1845] C57

Galictis (Grisonella) cuja cuja (Molina 1782) [incl. Ga. vittata var. chilensis Ihering 1886, Grison furax melinus Thomas 1912, Ga. furax melina, Grisonella melina, Mustela quiqui Molina 1782, Galictis quiqui, Viverra quiqui, Grisonella ratellina Thomas 1921, Grisonella shiptoni Thomas 1926] C57

Galictis (*Grisonella) cuja furax (Thomas 1907) [=Grison furax; incl. Mustela albifrons Larrañaga 1923, M. brasiliensis D’Orbigny 1838 non Gmelin 1788] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

Mustela

North American long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata, from here.


Belongs within: Mustelidae.

The genus Mustela contains the weasels, stoats, polecats and mink, and are small predators native to Eurasia and North and South America. The weasels and stoats of the subgenus Mustela are particularly slender, with a brown dorsum and pale underparts. The ferrets of the subgenus Putorius are generally stockier in build, and possess a dark mask across the face (King 1984).

Characters (from Anderson et al. 1986): Body long and lithe; legs short; braincase long and low. Jaws short and powerful, carnassials elongate and bladelike, three premolars in each jaw half (two in the lower jaw of Mustela africana).

<==Mustela Linné 1758 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |--M. vison AF86
    |    |--M. v. vison B75
    |    `--M. v. letifera Hollister 1913 B75
    `--+--M. (Mustela) AF86
       |    |--M. (M.) nivalis AF86
       |    |    |--M. n. nivalis AF86
       |    |    |--M. n. campestris Jackson 1913 B75
       |    |    |--M. n. namiyei Kuroda 1921 I92
       |    |    |--M. n. rixosa AF86
       |    |    `--M. n. vulgaris K84
       |    `--+--*M. (M.) erminea Linnaeus 1758 C57, AF86, M76
       |       |    |--M. e. erminea I92
       |       |    |--M. e. bangsi Hall 1945 B75
       |       |    |--M. e. nippon Cabrera 1913 I92
       |       |    `--M. e. orientalis Ognev 1928 I92
       |       `--M. (M.) frenata AF86 [=Putorius (Gale) brasiliensis frenatus C57]
       |            |--M. f. frenata AF86
       |            |--M. f. affinis Gray 1874 (see below for synonymy) C57
       |            |--M. f. agilis Tschudi 1844 C57
       |            |--M. f. arizonensis AF86
       |            |--M. f. aureoventris Gray 1864 (see below for synonymy) C57
       |            |--M. f. boliviensis Hall 1938 C57
       |            |--M. f. goldmani G69
       |            |--M. f. helleri Hall 1935 H35
       |            |--M. f. leucoparia (Merriam 1896) MB86
       |            |--M. f. longicauda B75
       |            |--M. f. macrophonius G69
       |            |--M. f. neomexicana (Barber & Cockerell 1898) MB86
       |            |--M. f. noveboracensis B75
       |            |--M. f. perotae G69
       |            |--M. f. primulina Jackson 1913 B75
       |            `--M. f. spadix (Bangs 1896) [=Putorius longicauda spadix] B75
       `--M. (Putorius) AF86
            |  i. s.: M. (P.) nambianus (Cope 1874) [=Martes nambianus] C77
            |--M. (P.) putorius AF86
            |    |--M. p. putorius AF86
            |    `--M. p. furo AF86
            |--M. (P.) stromeri AF86
            `--+--M. (P.) eversmanni AF86
               |    |--M. e. eversmanni AF86
               |    |--M. e. beringiae Anderson 1977 AF86
               |    `--M. e. michnoi AF86
               `--M. (P.) nigripes (Audubon & Bachman 1851) [=Putorius nigripes] AF86

Mustela incertae sedis:
  M. africana Desmarest 1818 AF86, C57 (see below for synonymy)
  M. altaica K84
  M. felipei [=Grammogale felipei] K84
  M. kathiah K84
  M. lutreola K84
    |--M. l. lutreola B84
    `--M. l. turovi B84
  M. lutreolina K84 [=M. sibirica lutreolina BP87]
  M. macrodon CG99
  M. melampus S66
  M. nudipes K84
    |--M. n. nudipes BP87
    `--M. n. hamakeri BP87
  M. numidica S78
  M. parviloba [incl. Martes mustelinus] C77
  M. sibirica K84
    |--M. s. sibirica M76
    `--M. s. itatsi Temminck 1844 M76
  M. stolzmanni Taczanowski 1881 H35, C57 [=Grammogale africana stolzmanni C57, M. africana stolzmanni C57]
  M. strigidorsa K84

Inorganic: Mustela sibirica minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Mustela Linné 1758 [incl. Arctogale Kaup 1829, Eumustela Acloque 1899, Foetorius Blasius 1857, Gale Wagner 1841, Grammogale Cabrera 1940, Neogale Gay 1865] C57

Mustela africana Desmarest 1818 AF86, C57 [=*Grammogale africana C57, Gymnopus africanus C57; incl. Putorius (Mustela) brasiliensis paraensis C57, Mustela affinis paraensis C57, M. stolzmanni paraensis C57]

Mustela frenata affinis Gray 1874 [incl. M. affinis costaricensis Allen 1916, M. frenata meridana Hollister 1914] C57

Mustela frenata aureoventris Gray 1864 [=M. aureiventris, Putorius (Arctogale) aureoventris; incl. P. (Gale) brasiliensis var. aequatorialis Coues 1877, Mustela jelskii Taczanowski 1881, M. frenata macrura Taczanowski 1874, Putorius macrurus] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AF86] Anderson, E., S. C. Forrest, T. W. Clark & L. Richardson. 1986. Paleobiology, biogeography, and systematics of the black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes (Audubon & Bachman), 1851. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 11–62.

[B84] Birks, J. D. S. 1984. Mink. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 108–109. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[H35] Hall, E. R. 1935. A new weasel from Peru. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 48: 143–145.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K84] King, C. M. 1984. Weasels and polecats. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 102–107. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 249–267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Exhibition of a collection of mammals and birds from Japan. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80–81.

Otarioidea

The New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri, photographed by Mike Lehmann.


Belongs within: Carnivora.

The Otarioidea are the eared seals, the clade containing fur seals, sea lions and walruses. Eared seals differ from their sister group, the true seals, in retaining visible ear flaps, and being able to bring the hind flippers forward underneath the body for walking on land. Otarioids have a homodont dentition except in the basal Enaliarctos (Repenning 1976).

<=Otarioidea [Desmatophocidae] BDR85
    |  i. s.: Atopotarus Downs 1956 BDR85
    |         Prototaria Takeyama & Ozawa 1984 BDR85
    |           `--P. primigena Takeyama & Ozawa 1984 BDR85
    |         Oriensarctos Mitchell 1968 BDR85
    |--+--Pinnarctidion Barnes 1979 BDR85
    |  `--Allodesmus Kellogg 1922 [Allodesminae] BDR85
    |       |--A. courseni (Downs 1956) B76
    |       |--A. kernensis Kellogg 1922 BDR85
    |       `--A. packardi BDR85
    |--Odobenidae BDR85
    |    |  i. s.: Pliopedia Kellogg 1921 BDR85
    |    |         Ontocetus Leidy 1859 BDR85
    |    |           `--O. oxymycterus Kellogg 1925 B76
    |    |         Trichecodon Lankester 1865 BDR85
    |    |         Valenictus Mitchell 1961 BDR85
    |    |--Neotherium Kellogg 1931 BDR85
    |    |--+--Imagotaria Mitchell 1968 [Imagotariinae] BDR85
    |    |  |    `--I. downsi Mitchell 1968 Re76
    |    |  `--Pontoleon True 1905 [=Pontolis True 1906] BDR85
    |    |       `--‘Pontolis’ magnus (True 1905) Ra76
    |    `--+--Dusignathus Kellogg 1927 [Dusignathinae] BDR85
    |       `--+--+--Prorosmarus Berry & Gregory 1906 BDR85
    |          |  `--Alachtherium du Bus 1867 BDR85
    |          `--+--Aivukus Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
    |             |    `--A. cedrosensis Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
    |             `--Odobenus [incl. Hemicaulodon Cope 1869; Odobeninae] BDR85
    |                  `--O. rosmarus AA02
    `--+--Desmatophoca Condon 1906 [Desmatophocinae] BDR85
       |    `--D. oregonensis Condon 1906 Ra76
       `--+--Enaliarctidae BDR85
          |    |--Kamtschatarctos Dubrovo 1981 [Kamtschatarctinae] BDR85
          |    |    `--K. sinelnikovae Dubrovo 1981 BDR85
          |    `--Enaliarctinae BDR85
          |         |--Kolponomos clallamensis Stirton 1960 BDR85
          |         `--Enaliarctos Mitchell & Tedford 1973 BDR85
          |              `--E. mealsi Mitchell & Tedford 1973 BDR85
          `--Otariidae BDR85
               |--Pithanotaria Kellogg 1925 BDR85
               |    `--P. starri Kellogg 1925 B76
               `--+--Callorhinae BDR85
                  |    |--Callorhinus ursinus BDR85, G03
                  |    `--Thalassoleon Repenning & Tedford 1977 BDR85
                  `--Otariinae LA02
                       |--Otaria Péron 1816 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    |--O. byronia (Blainville 1820) AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    |--O. flavescens (Shaw 1800) (see below for synonymy) C57
                       |    |--O. cinerea
                       |    `--O. hookeri
                       `--+--+--Zalophus Gill 1866 AG06, C57
                          |  |    |--Z. californianus M-GO01 (see below for synonymy)
                          |  |    |    |--Z. c. californianus I92
                          |  |    |    `--Z. c. japonicus (Peters 1866) I92
                          |  |    `--Z. wollebaeki Sivertsen 1953 C57 [=Z. californianus wollenbaeki BP87]
                          |  `--Eumetopias AG06
                          |       |--E. jubatus Schreber 1776 AG06, M76
                          |       `--E. ojiyaensis Horikawa 1981 BDR85
                          `--Arctocephalus Geoffroy & Cuvier 1826 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                               |  i. s.: A. galapagoensis Heller 1904 C57
                               |         A. gazella IT07
                               |         A. hookeri Gray 1866 W09
                               |         A. philippii BP87
                               |         A. tropicalis IT07
                               |         A. (Hydrarctos de Muizon 1978) BDR85
                               |--A. (Arctocephalus) pusillus AG06 [=Phoca pusilla C57; incl. *A. ursinus C57]
                               `--+--+--A. townsendi AG06
                                  |  `--+--A. australis (Zimmermann 1782) AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |     `--A. forsteri (Lesson 1828) AG06, W09 [=Otaria forsteri W09]
                                  `--+--Phocarctos hookeri AG06
                                     `--Neophoca AG06
                                          |--N. cinerea LA02
                                          |--N. hookeri BP87
                                          `--N. palatina King 1983 BDR85

Inorganic: Callorhinus ursinus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Eumetopias jubata protominilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Zalophus californianus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Zalophus californianus protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Arctocephalus Geoffroy & Cuvier 1826 AG06, C57 [incl. Euotaria Gray 1866 C57, Gypsophoca Gray 1866 C57, Halarctus Gill 1866 C57; Arctocephalinae]

Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann 1782) AG06, C57 [=Phoca australis C57, Otaria australis C57; incl. Otaria (Arctophoca) argentata Philippi in Peters 1871 C57, O. brachydactyla Philippi 1892 C57, Phoca falklandica Shaw 1800 C57, Arctocephalus falklandicus C57, Otaria falklandica C57, Phoca falclandica C57, Arctocephalus (Arctophoca) gracilis Nehring 1887 C57, A. grayii Scott 1873 C57, O. hauvilli Lesson 1827 C57, A. latirostris Gray 1872 C57, Euotaria latirostris C57, Otaria leucostoma Philippi 1892 C57, Phoca lupina Molina 1782 C57, Arctocephalus nigrescens Gray 1850 C57, Euotaria nigrescens C57, Otaria (Arctophoca) nigrescens C57, O. (A.) philippii Peters 1866 C57, Arctocephalus philippii C57, Phoca porcina Molina 1782 C57, Otaria porcina C57, O. shawii Lesson 1828 C57]

Otaria Péron 1816 AG06, C57 [incl. Otiphoca Blainville 1840 C57, Otoes Fischer 1817 C57, Platyrhincus Cuvier 1827 C57]

Otaria byronia (Blainville 1820) AG06, C57 [=Phoca byronia C57, Macrorhinus byronii C57, Mirounga byronii C57]

Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800) [=Phoca flavescens; incl. Ph. aurita Bechstein 1800, Otaria chilensis Müller 1841, O. chonotica Philippi 1892, O. fulva Philippi 1892, O. godeffroyi Peters 1866, Phoca leonina Molina 1782 non Linnaeus 1758, *O. leonina, Platyrhincus leoninus, O. minor Gray 1874, O. molossina Lesson & Garnot 1826, Pl. molossinus, O. pernettyi Lesson 1828, O. pygmaea Gray 1874, O. rufa Philippi 1892, O. ulloae Tschudi 1844, Platyrhincus uraniae Lesson 1827, O. velutina Philippi 1892] C57

Zalophus californianus M-GO01 [=Otaria californiana C57; incl. O. gillespii C57, *Zalophus gillespii C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AA02] Arnason, U., J. A. Adegoke, K. Bodin, E. W. Born, Y. B. Esa, A. Gullberg, M. Nilsson, R. V. Short, X. Xu & A. Janke. 2002. Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99 (12): 8151-8156.

[AG06] Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, A. Janke, M. Kullberg, N. Lehman, E. A. Petrov & R. Väinölä. 2006. Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 345-354.

[B76] Barnes, L. G. 1976. Outline of eastern North Pacific fossil cetacean assemblages. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 321-343.

[BDR85] Barnes, L. G., D. P. Domning & C. E. Ray. 1985. Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1 (1): 15-53.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[G03] Gingerich, P. D. 2003. Land-to-sea transition in early whales: Evolution of Eocene Archaeoceti (Cetacea) in relation to skeletal proportions and locomotion of living semiaquatic mammals. Paleobiology 29 (3): 429-454.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[M-GO01] Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., & D. K. Odell. 2001. Tropical and subtropical records of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) dispel the myth of extant Caribbean monk seals (Monachus tropicalis). Bulletin of Marine Science 68 (1): 47-58.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[Ra76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Fossil marine mammals of Oregon. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 420-436.

[Re76] Repenning, C. A. 1976. Adaptive evolution of sea lions and walruses. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 375-390.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of some recent additions to the Society's menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80.

[W09] Waite, E. R. 1909. Vertebrata of the Subantarctic islands of New Zealand. In Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand pp. 541-551. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

Lutra

Neotropical river otter Lutra longicaudis, photographed by Flávio Kulaif Ubaid.


Belongs within: Mustelidae.

The genus Lutra, commonly known as river otters (though one species, the South American L. felina, is primarily marine), are a group of relatively unspecialised members of the otter clade. They are mostly solitary, and individuals vocalise using twitters (Old World species) or staccato chuckles (New World species) (Duplaix 1984). Many authors now separate the New World members of Lutra into a separate genus, Lontra. The number of recognised species has varied in the past, with the Neotropical river otter Lutra longicaudis in particular sometimes divided between several species.

<==Lutra Brünnich 1771 AC98 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*L. lutra [=Mustela lutra] C57
    |    |--L. l. lutra M76
    |    `--L. l. whiteleyi Gray 1867 M76
    |--L. canadensis (Schreber 1776) [=Mustela lutra canadensis, Lontra canadensis] B75
    |    |--L. c. canadensis B75
    |    `--L. c. interior B75
    |--L. euxena (Bate 1935) AC98
    |--L. felina (Molina 1782) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. hessica S78
    |--L. libyca S78
    |--L. longicaudis MB86 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--L. l. longicaudis MB86
    |    |--L. l. annectens Major 1897 MB86
    |    |--L. ‘annectens’ colombiana Allen 1904 [incl. L. emerita Thomas 1908, L. annectens repanda Pohle 1920] C57
    |    |--L. l. enudris Cuvier 1823 D84, C57 [=L. enhydris C57, L. enydris C57; incl. L. mitis Thomas 1908 C57]
    |    |--L. ‘annectens’ parilina Thomas 1914 C57
    |    `--L. l. platensis Waterhouse 1838 D84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |--L. maculicollis S78
    |--L. nippon Imaizumi & Yoshiyuki 1989 I92
    |--L. perspicillata BP87
    |    |--L. p. perspicillata BP87
    |    `--L. p. maxwelli BP87
    |--L. provocax Thomas 1908 C57 [=Lontra provocax IT07]
    |--L. sumatrana IT07
    `--L. vulgaris T66

Lutra Brünnich 1771 AC98 [=Lutris Duméril 1806 C57, Lutrix Rafinesque 1817 C57; incl. Barangia Gray 1865 C57, Lataxina Gray 1843 C57, Lontra Gray 1843 C57, Lutronectes Gray 1867 C57, Nesolutra Bate 1935 AC98, Nutria Gray 1865 C57]

Lutra felina (Molina 1782) C57 [=Mustela felina C57, Lontra felina IT07, Nutria felina C57; incl. Lutra brachydactyla Wagner 1841 C57, Lutra californica Gray 1837 C57, Mustela (Lutra) chilensis Kerr 1792 C57, Lutra peruviensis Gervais 1841 C57]

Lutra longicaudis MB86 [=Lontra longicaudis IT07; incl. Lutra incarum Thomas 1908 D84, C57, Lutra insularis Cuvier 1823 D84, C57, Lutra latidens D84, Lutra montana Tschudi 1844 C57, Lutra repanda D84]

Lutra longicaudis platensis Waterhouse 1838 D84, C57 [incl. L. latifrons Nehring 1887 C57, L. solitaria Wagner 1842 C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[D84] Duplaix, N. 1984. Otters. In All the World’s Animals: Carnivores (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 116-121. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84-93.

Phocidae

Harbour seal Phoca vitulina, photographed by Kawika Chetron.


Belongs within: Carnivora.

The Phocidae contains the true seals, one of the two lineages within the Pinnipedia. In contrast to the eared seals of the Otarioidea, phocids lack external ear flaps, and are unable to bring the hind flippers underneath the body for walking on land.

See also: Taxon of the Week: Phocidae.

Synapomorphies (from Tedford 1976): Aquatic, swimming mainly by flexion of trunk; dentition reduced to homodonty; enlarged teres process for teres major muscle which occupies its lateral border.

<==Phocidae [Cystophorinae]
    |  i. s.: Palmidophoca callirhoe Ginsburg & Janvier 1975 BDR85
    |         Praepusa pannonica G76
    |--Semantorinae T76
    |    |--Potamotherium vallentoni T76
    |    `--Semantor T76
    `--+--Phocinae AG06
       |    |  i. s.: Leptophoca R76
       |    |           |--L. lenis True 1906 BDR85
       |    |           `--L. proxima [=Prophoca proxima] R76
       |    |         Platyphoca vulgaris R76
       |    |         Gryphoca similis R76
       |    |         Phocanella R76
       |    |           |--P. minor R76
       |    |           `--P. pumila R76
       |    |         Prophoca rousseaui R76
       |    |         Miophoca vetusta Zapfe 1937 R76, G76
       |    |--Erignathus [Erignathini] AG06
       |    |    `--E. barbatus G03
       |    `--+--Cystophora [Cystophorini] AG06
       |       |    `--C. cristata BP87
       |       `--Phocini AG06
       |            |--Histriophocina AG06
       |            |    |--*Histriophoca fasciata (Zimmermann 1780) [=Phoca fasciata] H48
       |            |    `--Pagophilus groenlandicus AG06
       |            `--Phoca AG06 [incl. Pontophoca Alekseev 1924 G76; Phocina]
       |                 |  i. s.: P. groenlandica G03
       |                 |         P. holitschensis G76
       |                 |         P. novorossica G76
       |                 |         P. richardi BP87
       |                 |         P. rugosidens R76
       |                 |         P. vindobonensis R76
       |                 |         P. vitulinoides R76
       |                 |--+--P. largha AG06
       |                 |  `--P. vitulina Linnaeus 1758 AG06, I92
       |                 |       |--P. v. vitulina I92
       |                 |       `--P. v. stejnegeri I92
       |                 `--P. (Pusa) AG06, G76
       |                      |--P. hispida AG06
       |                      |    |--P. h. hispida BP87
       |                      |    |--P. h. ladogensis BP87
       |                      |    `--P. h. saimensis BP87
       |                      `--+--P. sibirica AG06
       |                         `--+--P. grypa [=Halichoerus grypus] AG06
       |                            `--+--P. sarmatica [=Pontophoca sarmatica] G76
       |                               `--+--P. caspica AG06
       |                                  `--P. (Pusa) pontica (see below for synonymy) G76
       `--Monachinae [Lobodontinae] BR05
            |  i. s.: Monotherium R76
            |           |--M. aberratum R76
            |           |--M. affine R76
            |           |--M. delognii R76
            |           |--M. gaudini R76
            |           |--M. maeoticum [=Phoca maeotica] G76
            |           `--M. wymani R76
            |         Pliophoca etrusca R76
            |         ‘Phoca’ bessarabica G76
            |         Piscophoca pacifica de Muizon 1981 BDR85
            |         Callophoca BDR85
            |           |--C. ambigua [=Mesotaria ambigua] R76
            |           `--C. obscura BDR85
            |         0--+--Pristiphoca occitana BDR85, S78
            |         `--Properiptychus argentinus Ameghino 1893 BDR85
            |--+--Messiphoca mauretanica de Muizon 1981 BDR85
            |  `--Monachus Fleming 1822 AG06, BR05 [Monachini]
            |       |--*M. monachus S78
            |       |--M. schauinslandi BP87
            |       `--M. tropicalis BP87
            `--+--Mirounga Gray in Griffith 1827 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--M. leonina (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
               |    `--M. angustirostris MH96
               `--Lobodontini AG06
                    |--Ommatophoca Gray 1844 AG06, C57
                    |    `--*O. rossii Gray 1844 C57
                    `--+--+--Lobodon Gray 1844 BDR85, C57
                       |  |    `--*L. carcinophagus (Jacquinot & Pucheran 1842) (see below for synonymy) C57
                       |  `--Homiphoca de Muizon & Hendley 1980 BDR85
                       |       `--*H. capensis (Hendey & Repenning 1972) [=Prionodelphis capensis] BDR85
                       `--+--Leptonychotes Gill 1872 AG06, C57 [incl. Poecilophoca Flower & Lydekker 1891 C57]
                          |    `--*L. weddellii (Lesson 1826) (see below for synonymy) C57
                          `--+--Acrophoca longirostris de Muizon 1981 BDR85
                             `--Hydrurga Gistel 1848 AG06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                                  `--*H. leptonyx (Blainville 1820) (see below for synonymy) C57

Inorganic: Mirounga leconina minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87
           Monachus schauinslandi protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Phoca vitulina protominilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Hydrurga Gistel 1848 AG06, C57 [incl. Ogmorhinus Peters 1875 C57, Stenorhynchotes Turner 1888 C57]

*Hydrurga leptonyx (Blainville 1820) [=Phoca leptonyx, Ogmorhinus leptonyx, Ogmorhynus leptonyx, Stenorhincus leptonyx, Stenorhynchus leptonyx; incl. Phoca homei Lesson 1828] C57

*Leptonychotes weddellii (Lesson 1826) [=Otaria weddellii, Leptonix weddelii, Leptonyx weddellii, Phoca weddelii, Phoca weddellii, Poecilophoca weddelli, Stenorhynchus weddellii; incl. Phoca leopardina Hamilton Smith 1839, Leptonyx leopardinus] C57

*Lobodon carcinophagus (Jacquinot & Pucheran 1842) [=Phoca carcinophaga, L. carcinophaga, Ogmorhinus carcinophagus, Stenorhynchus carcinophagus; incl. S. serridens Owen 1843] C57

Mirounga Gray in Griffith 1827 AG06, C57 [=Morunga Gray 1843 C57; incl. Macrorhinus Cuvier 1826 non Latreille 1825 C57, Macrorhyna (l. c.) C57, Physorhinus Gloger 1841 C57, Rhinophoca Wagler 1830 C57; Miroungini]

Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus 1758) [=Phoca leonina, Macrorhinus leoninus; incl. P. ansonii Desmarest 1820, Ma. ansonii, Mirounga ansonii, Phoca coxii Desmarest 1820, Macrorhinus coxii, Ma. leoninus crosetensis Lydekker 1909, Phoca dubia Fischer 1829, P. elephantina Molina 1782, Cystophora elephantina, Macrorhinus elefantinus, Morunga elephantina, Cystophora falklandica Peters 1875, Macrorhinus leoninus flaclandicus, C. kerguelensis Peters 1875, Ma. leoninus macquariensis Lydekker 1909, Mirounga patagonica Gray 1827, Phoca proboscidea Péron 1817, Cystophora proboscidea, Macrorhinus proboscideus, *Mirounga proboscidea, Phoca resima Péron 1817, Macrorhinus leoninus typicus Lydekker 1909] C57

Phoca (Pusa) pontica [=Monachus (Monachus) ponticus; incl. *Pontophoca simionescui Alekseev 1924] G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AG06] Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, A. Janke, M. Kullberg, N. Lehman, E. A. Petrov & R. Väinölä. 2006. Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 345-354.

[BDR85] Barnes, L. G., D. P. Domning & C. E. Ray. 1985. Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1 (1): 15-53.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[G03] Gingerich, P. D. 2003. Land-to-sea transition in early whales: Evolution of Eocene Archaeoceti (Cetacea) in relation to skeletal proportions and locomotion of living semiaquatic mammals. Paleobiology 29 (3): 429-454.

[G76] Grigorescu, D. 1976. Paratethyan seals. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 407-419.

[H48] Hershkovitz, P. 1948. The technical name of the Virginia deer with a list of the South American forms. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 61: 41-45.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[R76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Geography of phocid evolution. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 391-406.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[T76] Tedford, R. H. 1976. Relationship of pinnipeds to other carnivores (Mammalia). Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 363-374.

Procyonidae

Common raccoons Procyon lotor, from here.


Belongs within: Musteloidea.

The Procyonidae are a family of New World carnivorans including such animals as raccoons (Procyon), coatis (Nasua and Nasuella), kinkajous (Potos) and cacomistles (Bassariscus). Procyonids are generally omnivorous, and most living species (except the kinkajou) possess distinctive facial markings. The family is most diverse in South and Central America, with only the common raccoon Procyon lotor found north of Mexico. Raccoons of the genus Procyon have a stout build, a black mask across the eyes and a thick ringed tail.

See also: West Indian raccoons: from endangered endemics to invasive introductions.

Synapomorphies (from Flynn et al. 1988): Suprameatal fossa deep, open ventrally; malleus with a small processus muscularis; two molars in each half of each jaw, upper molars with expanded metaconule, M2 with elongate talonid and enlarged hypoconulid.

<==Procyonidae [Procyoninae, Procyonoidea]
    |--Arctonasua floridanus V91
    |--Chapalmalania Ameghino 19087 D07
    |    `--C. altaefrontis D07
    |--Nasuella Hollister 1915 C57
    |    `--N. olivacea (Gray 1863) [=Nasua olivacea] C57
    |         |--N. o. olivacea [incl. Nasua olivacea lagunetae Allen 1913, Nasuella olivacea lagunetae] C57
    |         |--*N. o. meridensis (Thomas 1901) [=Nasua olivacea meridensis] C57
    |         `--N. o. quitensis (Lönnberg 1913) [=Nasua olivacea quitensis] C57
    |--Bassaricyon Allen 1876 [=Bassariscyon (l. c.)] C57
    |    |--*B. gabbii C57 [incl. B. lasius R84b, B. pauli R84b]
    |    |    |--B. g. gabbii C57
    |    |    |--B. g. medius Thomas 1909 [incl. Bassariscyon (l. c.) gabbii orinomus Goldman 1912] C57
    |    |    `--B. g. siccatus Thomas 1927 C57
    |    `--B. alleni Thomas 1880 C57 [incl. Bassariscus beddardi Pocock 1921 C57, Bassaricyon beddardi R84b]
    |--Potos Geoffroy & Cuvier 1795 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    `--P. flavus (Schreber 1774) [=Lemur flavus, Caudivolvulus flavus] C57
    |         |--P. f. flavus (see below for synonymy) C57
    |         |--P. f. aztecus G69
    |         |--P. f. chapadensis Allen 1904 [incl. P. flavus brasiliensis Ihering 1911] C57
    |         |--P. f. megalotus (Martin 1836) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |         |--P. f. meridensis Thomas 1902 C57
    |         |--P. f. modestus Thomas 1902 C57
    |         `--P. f. nocturnus (Wied 1826) [=Nasua nocturna] C57
    |--Bassariscus R84b
    |    |--B. astutus R84b
    |    |    |--B. a. astutus MB86
    |    |    |--B. a. bolei G69
    |    |    |--B. a. consitus Nelson & Goldman 1932 MB86
    |    |    |--B. a. flavus Rhoads 1894 MB86
    |    |    `--B. a. macdougalli G69
    |    `--B. sumichrasti R84b
    |         |--B. s. sumichrasti G69
    |         |--B. s. campechensis G69
    |         |--B. s. latrans G69
    |         `--B. s. oaxacensis G69
    |--Nasua Storr 1780 [incl. Coati Lacépéde 1799, Cuati Liais 1872, Nasica South 1845] C57
    |    |--*N. nasua (Linné 1766) [=Viverra nasua, Ursus nasua] C57
    |    |    |--N. n. nasua (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--N. n. aricana Vieira 1945 C57
    |    |    |--N. n. boliviensis Cabrera 1956 C57
    |    |    |--N. n. candace Thomas 1912 [incl. N. judex Thomas 1914] C57
    |    |    |--N. n. cinerascens Lönnberg 1921
    |    |    |--N. n. dorsalis Gray 1866 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--N. n. manium Thomas 1912 [incl. N. nasuta Tschudi 1844 (n. n.), N. rufina Tschudi 1844 (n. n.)] C57
    |    |    |--N. n. montana Tschudi 1844 C57
    |    |    |--N. n. quichua Thomas 1901 C57
    |    |    |--N. n. solitaria Schinz 1823 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    `--N. n. vittata Tschusi 1844 [incl. N. candace dichromatica Tate 1939, N. phaeocephala Allen 1904] C57
    |    |--N. narica G66
    |    |    |--N. n. narica MB86
    |    |    |--N. n. isthmicus G69
    |    |    `--N. n. molaris Merriam 1902 MB86
    |    `--N. nelsoni R84a
    `--Procyon V84
         |  i. s.: P. gloveranni V84
         |         P. insularis V84
         |           |--P. i. insularis BP87
         |           `--P. i. vicinus BP87
         |         P. maynardi BP87
         |         P. minor V84
         |         P. pygmaeus V84
         |--P. (Procyon) lotor G69
         |    |--P. l. lotor MB86
         |    |--P. l. hermandezii Wagler 1831 MB86
         |    |--P. l. hirtus Nelson & Goldman 1930 B75
         |    |--P. l. mexicanus Baird 1858 MB86
         |    `--P. l. shufeldti G69
         `--P. (Euprocyon Gray 1864) C57
              `--P. (*E.) cancrivorus (Cuvier 1798) [=Ursus cancrivorus] C57
                   |--P. c. cancrivorus C57
                   |--P. c. aequatorialis Allen 1915 C57
                   |--P. c. nigripes Mivart 1886 (see below for synonymy) C57
                   |--P. c. panamensis (Goldman 1913) [=Eurocyon cancrivorus panamensis] C57
                   `--P. c. proteus Allen 1904

Inorganic: Procyon lotor protominilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Nasua nasua dorsalis Gray 1866 [incl. N. quichua jivaro Thomas 1914, N. narica juruana Ihering 1911, N. nasua mephisto Thomas 1927, N. nasua soederstroemmi Lönnberg 1921] C57

*Nasua nasua nasua (Linné 1766) [incl. Myrmecophaga annulata Desmarest 1820, N. fusca Desmarest 1820, N. socialis mexiana Hagmann 1908, N. nasua mexianae, Viverra quasje Gmelin 1788, N. quasje, Myrmecophaga striata Shaw 1800, N. socialis var. rufa Desmarest 1820, N. vulgaris Cuvier 1842] C57

Nasua nasua solitaria Schinz 1823 [incl. N. socialis var. fulva Wagner 1841, N. henseli Lönnberg 1921, N. nasica Winge 1859, N. sociabilis Schinz 1823, N. socialis Wied 1826] C57

Potos Geoffroy & Cuvier 1795 [incl. Aesurus Rafinesque 1815, Caudivolvulus Dumeril 1805, Cercoleptes Illiger 1811, Kinkajou Lacépède 1799] C57

Potos flavus flavus (Schreber 1774) [incl. Cercoleptes brachyotus Martin 1836, C. brachyotos, Potos flavus brachyotus, Viverra caudivolvula Pallas in Schreber 1777, Cercoleptes caudivolvulus, Didelphis caudivolvulus, Kinkajou caudivolvulus, *Potos caudivolvulus, Pottos caudivolvulus, Ursus caudivolvulus, Mustela potto Müller 1776, Lemur simiasciurus Schreber 1774] C57

Potos flavus megalotus (Martin 1836) [=Cercoleptes megalotus; incl. P. flavus caucensis Allen 1904, P. flavus isthmicus Goldman 1913, P. flavus mansuetus Thomas 1914, P. flavus tolimensis Allen 1913] C57

Procyon cancrivorus nigripes Mivart 1886 [incl. P. cancrivorus brasiliensis Ihering 1911, Euprocyon cancrivorus brasiliensis] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

Flynn, J. J., N. A. Neff & R. H. Tedford. 1988. Phylogeny of the Carnivora. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 2. Mammals pp. 73–116. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. Notice of a new species of Nasua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 169–170.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R84a] Russell, J. K. 1984a. Coatis. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 94–95. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[R84b] Russell, J. K. 1984b. Other procyonids. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 98–99. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340–362.

[V84] Voigt, D. R. 1984. Raccoons. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 92–93. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

Platyrrhini

Black howler monkeys Alouatta caraya, from Formiga Tours (only the adult males are black).


Belongs within: Anthropoidea.
Contains: Callitrichinae, Cebinae, Pitheciidae, Ateles.

The clade Platyrrhini contains the New World monkeys of South and Central America. The name ('flat nose') refers to the position of the nostrils, widely separated and facing outwards, as opposed to the closely-positioned and downwards-pointing nostrils of members of their sister group, the Catarrhini (Old World monkeys and apes). Past classifications often divided the Platyrrhini between the families Callitrichidae (including the marmosets and tamarins) and Cebidae (including the larger New World monkeys). However, it is now well established that Cebidae in this sense is paraphyletic with regard to the callitrichids, and its members are divided between a number of families.

Synapomorphies (from Horovitz 1999): Ossification present in tentorium cerebelli; canal connecting subarcuate fossa and sigmoid sinus; zygomatic-parietal contact in pterion region; M3 and P4 subequal in length.

Platyrrhini [Aotinae, Ateloidea, Ceboidea, Platyrrhina]
    |  i. s.: Chilecebus carracoensis TT06
    |         Carlocebus Fleagle 1990 G91
    |         Lagonimico conclucatus TT06
    |--Branisella [Branisellinae] OW06
    |    `--B. boliviana OW06
    `--+--Homunculus [Homunculidae] NG13
       |    `--H. patagonicus NG13
       `--+--Cebidae OW06
          |    |--Callitrichinae OW06
          |    `--+--Cebinae OW06
          |       `--Aotidae G91
          |            |--Tremacebus harringtoni G91, TT06
          |            `--Aotus Illiger 1811 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 |--*A. trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. trivirgatus (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. boliviensis Elliot 1907 [incl. A. bidentatus Lönnberg 1941] C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. griseimembra Elliot 1912 (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. lemurinus (Geoffroy 1843) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |                 |    |--A. t. microdon Dollman 1909 C57
          |                 |    `--A. t. roberti Dollman 1909 C57
          |                 |--A. azarae (Humboldt 1812) G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 |--A. brumbacki IT07
          |                 |--A. hershkovitzi IT07
          |                 |--A. infulatus (Kuhl 1820) G91, C57 [=Callithrix infulatus C57, Saguinus infulatus C57]
          |                 |--A. nancymaae [=A. nancymai] G91
          |                 |--A. nigriceps Dollman 1909 G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |                 `--A. vociferans (Spix 1823) G91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          `--+--Pitheciidae OW06
             `--Atelidae OW06
                  |--Atelinae C57
                  |    |--Ateles OW06
                  |    `--+--Brachyteles Spix 1823 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |       |    `--B. arachnoides (Geoffroy 1806) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |       `--Lagothrix Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            |--L. lagothricha (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |            |    |--L. l. lagothricha G91
                  |            |    `--L. l. lugens Elliot 1907 G91, C57 [=L. cana lugens C57]
                  |            |--L. cana (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            |    |--L. c. cana [incl. L. geoffroyi Pucheran 1857] C57
                  |            |    |--L. c. olivacea (Spix 1823) (see below for synonymy) C57
                  |            |    `--L. c. poeppigii Schinz 1844 [incl. L. castelnaui Geoffroy 1848] C57
                  |            |--L. flavicauda (Humboldt 1812) J84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |            `--L. hendeei Thomas 1927 [=L. (Oreonax) hendeei] C57
                  `--Alouattinae G91
                       |--Stirtonia Hershkovitz 1970 [incl. Kondous Setoguchi 1985] G91
                       `--Alouatta Lacépéde 1799 OW06, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                            |--*A. belzebul (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. b. belzebul [incl. Mycetes rufimanus Kuhl 1820, M. flavimanus (l. c.)] C57
                            |    |--A. b. discolor (Spix 1823) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. b. mexianae (Hagmann 1908) [=Mycetes belzebul mexianae] C57
                            |    |--A. b. nigerrima Lönnberg 1941 C57
                            |    `--A. b. ululata Elliot 1912 C57
                            |--A. caraya (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. coibensis IT07
                            |--A. fusca (Geoffroy 1812) G91, C57 [=Stentor fuscus C57, Mycetes fuscus C57]
                            |    |--A. f. fusca G91
                            |    `--A. f. beniensis Lönnberg 1941 G91, C57 [=A. guariba beniensis C57]
                            |--A. guariba (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia guariba, Stentor guariba] C57
                            |    |--A. g. guariba [incl. Mycetes bicolor Gray 1845] C57
                            |    `--A. g. clamitans Cabrera 1940 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. palliata J84
                            |    |--A. p. palliata C57
                            |    `--A. p. aequatorialis Festa 1903 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |--A. pigra IT07
                            |--A. seniculus (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. seniculus (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. arctoidea Cabrera 1940 (see below for synonymy) C57
                            |    |--A. s. sara Elliot 1910 C57
                            |    `--A. s. straminea (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy) C57
                            `--A. villosa J84
                                 |--A. v. villosa G69
                                 `--A. v. mexicana G69

Alouatta Lacépéde 1799 OW06, C57 [=Alouata Trouessart 1897 C57, Aluatta Fischer 1813 C57; incl. Mycetes Illiger 1811 C57, Stentor Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 C57]

*Alouatta belzebul (Linné 1766) [=Simia sapajus belzebul, Alouata belzebul, Alouatta beelzebul, Cebus belzebul, Mycetes beelzebul, Simia beelzebub] C57

Alouatta belzebul discolor (Spix 1823) [=Mycetes discolor; incl. A. belzebul tapajozensis Lönnberg 1941] C57

Alouatta caraya (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia caraya, Cebus caraya, Mycetes caraya; incl. M. barbatus Spix 1823, Stentor niger Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812, Alouata nigra, Alouatta nigra, Aluatta nigra, M. seniculus niger] C57

Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera 1940 [=A. fusca clamitans; incl. A. fusca iheringi Lönnberg 1941] C57

Alouatta palliata aequatorialis Festa 1903 [=Alouata aequatorialis; incl. Alouatta inclamax Thomas 1913, Alouatta palliata inconsonns Goldman 1913, Alouatta palliata quicha Thomas 1913] C57

Alouatta seniculus (Linné 1766) [=Simia seniculus, A. senicula, Cebus seniculus, Mycetes seniculus, Stentor seniculus] C57

Alouatta seniculus arctoidea Cabrera 1940 [incl. Simia ursina Humboldt 1805 nec Kerr 1792 nec Bechstein 1800, Alouatta seniculus ursina, Mycetes ursinus, Stentor ursinus] C57

Alouatta seniculus seniculus (Linné 1766) [incl. A. seniculus bogotensis Allen 1914, A. seniculus caaucensis Allen 1904, A. seniculus caquetensis Allen 1914, Stentor chrysurus Geoffroy 1829, Mycetes chrysurus, Alouatta seniculus juara Elliot 1910, A. seniculus juruana Lönnberg 1941, M. laniger Gray 1845, A. seniculus puruensis Lönnberg 1941, A. seniculus rubicunda Allen 1904, A. seniculus rubiginosa (l. c.)] C57

Alouatta seniculus straminea (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia straminea, A. senicula stramineus, Cebus stramineus, Mycetes stramineus, Stentor stramineus; incl. Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lönnberg 1941, Mycetes auratus Gray 1845, Stentor fulvus Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 (n. n.), Alouatta seniculus macconnelli Elliot 1910, A. senicula macconnelli] C57

Aotus Illiger 1811 OW06, C57 [=Aotes Jardine 1833 C57; incl. Chirogaleus Vigors & Horsfield 1829 C57, Gliscebus Lesson 1840 C57, Nocthora Cuvier 1824 C57, Nyctipithecus Spix 1823 C57]

Aotus azarae (Humboldt 1812) G91, C57 [=Simia azarae C57, Aotes azarae C57, Aotus azarai C57, Aotus trivirgatus azarae C57, Nyctipithecus azarae C57, N. azarai C57; incl. Pithecia miqouina Geoffroy 1812 C57, Aotus miriqouina C57, Nyctipithecus miriqouina C57]

Aotus nigriceps Dollman 1909 G91, C57 [=A. trivirgatus nigriceps C57; incl. A. miconax Thomas 1927 C57]

*Aotus trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) [=Simia trivirgata, Aotes trivirgatus, Cebus trivirgatus, Nocthora trivirgata, Nyctipithecus trivirgatus, Simia trivergata] C57

Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra Elliot 1912 [incl. A. bipunstatus Bole 1937, A. zonalis Goldman 1914] C57

Aotus trivirgatus lemurinus (Geoffroy 1843) [=Nyctipithecus lemurinus; incl. A. aversus Elliot 1913, N. hirsutus Gray 1870 (n. n.), Aotus lanius Dollman 1909, A. perviglis Elliot 1913, Nyctipithecus villosus Gray 1847] C57

Aotus trivirgatus trivirgatus (Humboldt 1811) [incl. Chirogaleus commersoni Vigors & Horsfield 1829, Nyctipithecus commersoni, N. duruculi Lesson 1840, N. felinus Spix 1823, Cebus felinus, Aotus humboldti Illiger in Humboldt 1812, Nyctipithecus humboldtii, Nyctipithecus rufipes Sclater 1872, Gliscebus rufus Lesson 1840, Scartes rufus] C57

Aotus vociferans (Spix 1823) G91, C57 [=Nyctipithecus vociferans C57, A. trivirgatus vociferans C57, Cebus vociferans C57; incl. Aotus gularis Dollman 1909 C57, N. oseryi Geoffroy & Deville 1848 C57, A. senex Dollman 1909 C57, N. spixi Pucheran 1857 C57]

Brachyteles Spix 1823 OW06, C57 [=Brachyteleus Elliot 1913 C57; incl. Eriodes Geoffroy 1829 C57]

Brachyteles arachnoides (Geoffroy 1806) [=Ateles arachnoides, Brachyteleus arachnoides, Cebus arachnoides, Eriodes arachnoides, Simia arachnoides; incl. Ateles eriodes Brehm 1876, Eriodes hemidactylus Geoffroy 1829, A. hemidactylus, A. hypoxanthus Kuhl 1820, Cebus hypoxanthus, *Brachyteles macrotarsus Spix 1823, Eriodes tuberifer Geoffroy 1829] C57

Lagothrix Geoffroy in Humboldt 1812 OW06, C57 [incl. Gastrimargus Spix 1823 C57, Oreonax Thomas 1927 C57]

Lagothrix cana (Geoffroy ex Humboldt 1812) C57 [=Simia cana C57, Cabus canus C57, Lagothrix canus C57, L. lagotricha cana BP87]

Lagothrix cana olivacea (Spix 1823) [=Gastrimargus olivaceus; incl. L. lagothricha puruensis Lönnberg 1940, L. tachudii Pucheran 1857, L. thomasi Elliot 1909, L. ubericola Elliot 1909] C57

Lagothrix flavicauda (Humboldt 1812) J84, C57 [=Simia flavicauda C57, Stentor flavicaudatus C57]

Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt 1812) [=Simia lagothricha, Cebus lagothrix, Lagothrix lagothrix; incl. L. capparo Lesson 1840, L. caroarensis Lömberg 1931, *L. humboldtii Geoffroy 1812, Gastrimargus infumatus Spix 1823, L. infumata, L. infumatus] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

Horovitz, I. 1999. A phylogenetic study of living and fossil platyrrhines. American Museum Novitates 3269: 1-40.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J84] Janson, C. H. 1984. Capuchin-like monkeys. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Primates pp. 56–65. Torstar Books: New York.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[OW06] Opazo, J. C., D. E. Wildman, T. Prychitko, R. M. Johnson & M. Goodman. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 274–280.

[TT06] Tejedor, M. F., A. A. Tauber, A. L. Rosenberger, C. C. Swisher, III & M. E. Palacios. 2006. New primate genus from the Miocene of Argentina. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103: 5437–5441.