Sulcavitida

Reconstruction of Haplophrentis by Smokeybjb.


Belongs within: Hyolitha.

The Sulcavitida are a group of hyoliths defined by Kruse (2002) to include those species with a ligula present on the venter, and in which the dorsoventral and lateral transitions coincide such that the dorsum perimeter is equal to or greater than the venter perimeter. The type family Sulcavitidae includes less differentiated forms in which the transverse section is elliptical to ovoid, and a median trough may be present on the dorsum (Kruse 2002).

<==Sulcavitida
    |--Aimitidae K02
    |--Parakorilithes He & Pei in He et al. 1984 [Parakorilithidae] K02
    |--Notabilitidae [Crestjahitidae, Doliutidae] K02
    |--Pauxillites Marek 1966 [Pauxillitidae] K02
    |--Parentilites MB05 [Atdabanithidae, Parentilitidae K02]
    |    `--P. parens MB05
    |--Trapezovitus Syssoiev 1958 M02 [Amydaicornidae, Trapezovitidae K02]
    |    `--*T. sinscus Syssoiev 1958 F62
    |--Dorsojugatus Sysoyev 1968 [Dorsojugatidae] K02
    |    `--*D. multicostatus Sysoyev 1968 K02
    |--Cardiolithidae K02
    |    |--Cardiolithes Qian in Qian & Xiao 1995 K02
    |    `--Shandongolithes Qian in Qian & Xiao 1995 K02
    |         |--*S. jiulongshanensis Qian in Qian & Xiao 1995 K02
    |         `--S. thakal Kruse 2002 K02
    |--Gakidae K02
    |    |--Gaka Kruse 1990 K02
    |    |    `--G. gakawurin Kruse 1990 K02
    |    `--Kalkatungu Kruse 2002 K02
    |         `--*K. murlu Kruse 2002 K02
    |--Angusticornidae [Similothecidae] K02
    |    |--Haplophrentis Babcock & Robison 1988 K02
    |    |    `--‘Hyolithes’ carinatus Matthew 1899 M90
    |    |--Yuku Kruse 2002 K02
    |    |    `--*Y. tjurtu Kruse 2002 K02
    |    `--Similotheca Malinky 1988 M02
    |         `--‘Hyolithes’ similis Walcott 1890 M02
    |--Inflaticornidae [Linevitidae] K02
    |    |--Nelegerocornus Meshkova in Repina et al. 1974 [Nelegerocornidae] K02
    |    |--Lenalituus Missarzhevskiy 1980 K02
    |    |--Linevitus Syssoiev 1958 M02
    |    |    |--*L. obscurus (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes obscurus] F62
    |    |    `--L. springerensis M02
    |    |--Gerkella Malinky & Sixt 1990 K02
    |    |    |--*G. humboldti Malinky & Sixt 1990 K02
    |    |    `--G. thuka Kruse 2002 K02
    |    |--Yacutolituus Missarzhevskiy 1974 K02
    |    |    |--*Y. fusiformis Missarzhevskiy 1974 K02
    |    |    `--Y. rakatju Kruse 2002 K02
    |    `--Microcornus Mambetov 1972 K02
    |         |--M. egregius Demidenko in Gravestock et al. 2001 K02
    |         |--M. eximius Duan 1984 K02
    |         `--M. petilus Bengtson in Bengtson et al. 1990 K02
    `--Sulcavitidae [Altaicornidae, Tulenicornidae] K02
         |--Paraeonovitatus Qian 1989 M02
         |--Sulcavitus Syssoiev 1958 M02
         |    `--*S. caelatus (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes caelatus, Hyolithus (l. c.) caelatus] M02
         |--Kulangarra Kruse 2002 K02
         |    `--*K. kutjurru Kruse 2002 K02
         |--Yankongovitus Qian 1978 M02
         |    `--‘Hyolithes’ wynnei Waagen 1885 M02
         |--Ambrolinevitus Syssoiev 1958 F62
         |    `--*A. straitellus (Syssoiev 1958) [=Hyolithus striatellus] M02
         `--Altaicornus Sysoyev 1970 [incl. Tulenicornus Val’kov 1970] K02
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ alatus Val’kov 1970 M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ gratus Val’kov 1970 M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ jugatus Val’kov 1970 M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ laccatus Val’kov 1970 M90
              |--‘Hyolithes’ matthewi Sinclair 1946 (see below for synonymy) M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ mollis Val’kov 1970 M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ oelandicus (Holm 1893) M90
              |--‘Tulenicornus’ operosus (Cobbold & Pocock 1934) M90
              `--*Tulenicornus’ ovalis Val’kov 1970 M90

‘Hyolithes’ matthewi Sinclair 1946 [=H. decipiens Matthew 1894 non Barrande 1867, Tulenicornus matthewi] M90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F62] Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W98–W143. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[K02] Kruse, P. D. 2002. Biostratigraphic potential of Middle Cambrian hyoliths from the eastern Georgina Basin. Alcheringa 26: 353–398.

[M90] Malinky, J. M. 1990. Cambrian Hyolitha from northeast Canada: reappraisal of the hyolith orders Camerothecida and Diplothecida. Journal of Paleontology 64 (4): 587–595.

[M02] Malinky, J. M. 2002. A revision of Early to Mid Ordovician hyoliths from Sweden. Palaeontology 45: 511–555.

[MB05] Mus, M. M., & J. Bergström. 2005. The morphology of hyolithids and its functional implications. Palaeontology 48 (6): 1139–1167.

Orthothecida

Ventral, dorsal and right lateral views of Trapezotheca aemula, from Malinky (2002).


Belongs within: Hyolitha.

The Orthothecida are a group of hyoliths defined by Kruse (2002) as including those species in which the dorsum and venter were clearly differentiated, but without a ligula along the venter. Families of Orthothecida are primarily distinguished by the shape of the cross-section. Orthothecidae have the transverse section triangular or subtriangular with a planar venter (Kruse 2002).

<==Orthothecida
    |  i. s.: ‘Hyolithes’ glabra Walcott 1911 M90
    |--Gracilitheca L95 [Gracilithecidae K02]
    |    `--G. bayonet (Matthew 1899) L95
    |--Lentitheca Syssoiev 1958 F62 [Istithecidae K02, Lentithecidae, Nikathecidae]
    |    `--*L. peracuta (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes peracutus] F62
    |--Allathecidae (see below for synonymy) K02
    |    |--Mooritheca Val’kov 1975 K02
    |    `--Allatheca KB09
    |         |--A. cana KB09
    |         `--A. degeeri L95
    |--Quadrotheca Syssoiev 1958 [Quadrothecidae] M02
    |    |--*Q. quadrangularis (Holm 1893) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |    |--Q. rediviva Marek 1967 M02
    |    `--Q. shipaiensis Qian, Cheng & Chen 1979 M02
    |--Orthothecidae F62
    |    |--Bactrotheca Novák 1891 F62
    |    |    `--*B. teres (Barrande 1867) [=Hyolithes teres] F62
    |    |--Cryptocaris Barrande 1872 F62
    |    |    `--*C. suavis Barrande 1872 F62
    |    |--Semielliptotheca Syssoiev 1958 F62
    |    |    `--*S. rosmara (Holm 1893) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |    `--Orthotheca Novak 1886 M90
    |         |--*O. intermedia Novak 1886 F62
    |         |--O. bayonet Metthew 1899 M90
    |         |--O. pugio Matthew 1899 M90
    |         |--O. sica Matthew 1899 M90
    |         `--O. stiletto Matthew 1899 M90
    `--Novitatidae M02
         |--Novitatus Syssoiev 1968 M02
         |--Panitheca Marek 1967 K02
         |--Tcharatheca Syssoiev 1972 M02
         |--Eonovitatus Syssoiev 1968 M02
         |--Contitheca Syssoiev 1972 M02
         |--Devoniotheca Malinky 1987 M02
         |--Nephrotheca Marek 1966 K02
         |--Decoritheca Syssoiev 1972 [Decorithecidae] M02
         |    `--D. lineatula M02
         |--Foersteotheca Malinky 1987 M02
         |    |--*F. newsomensis (Foerste 1903) [=Hyolithes newsomensis] K02
         |    `--F. dubecensis (Marek 1967) [=Nephrotheca dubecensis] K02
         |--Holmitheca Syssoiev 1968 M02
         |    |--*H. obvia Syssoiev 1968 K02
         |    `--‘Hyolithes’ quadricostatus Shaler & Foerste 1888 M02
         `--Trapezotheca Syssoiev 1958 M02
              |--*T. aemula (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithus (Orthotheca) aemulus] M02
              |--T. aldanica Syssoiev 1960 M02
              |--T. dens (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithus (Orthotheca) dens, Bactrotheca dens, Semielliptotheca dens] M02
              |--‘Hyolithes’ hexagonus Barrande 1867 M02
              `--T. novaki Syssoiev 1960 [=Hyolithes quadricostatus Novák 1891 non Shaler & Foerste 1888] M02

Allathecidae [Aldanothecidae, Chelsonellidae, Curtithecidae, Exilithecidae, Fistulosithecidae, Tchuranithecidae] K02

*Quadrotheca quadrangularis (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes (Orthotheca) quadrangularis, Bactrotheca quadrangularis, Hyolithus (l. c.) (O.) quadrangularis] M02

*Semielliptotheca rosmara (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes (Orthotheca) rosmarus, Bactrotheca rosmarus, Hyolithus (l. c.) rosmarus, Semielliptotheca (Hyolithes) rosmarus (l. c.)] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F62] Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W98–W143. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KB09] Kouchinsky, A., S. Bengtson, W. Feng, R. Kutygin & A. Val’kov. 2009. The Lower Cambrian fossil anabaritids: affinities, occurrences and systematics. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 7 (3): 241–298.

[K02] Kruse, P. D. 2002. Biostratigraphic potential of Middle Cambrian hyoliths from the eastern Georgina Basin. Alcheringa 26: 353–398.

[L95] Landing, E. 1995. Upper Placentian–Branchian series of mainland Nova Scotia (middle–upper Lower Cambrian): faunas, paleoenvironments, and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology 69 (3): 475–495.

[M90] Malinky, J. M. 1990. Cambrian Hyolitha from northeast Canada: reappraisal of the hyolith orders Camerothecida and Diplothecida. Journal of Paleontology 64 (4): 587–595.

[M02] Malinky, J. M. 2002. A revision of Early to Mid Ordovician hyoliths from Sweden. Palaeontology 45: 511–555.

Lichomolgidae

Dorsal view of Paramolgus politus, from here.


Belongs within: Poecilostomatoida.

The Lichomolgidae are a family of marine parasitic copepods that have been found on a wide variety of hosts, including molluscs, polychaetes and cnidarians. Most species are relatively cyclopiform, though many have somewhat modified females (Humes & Stock 1973).

Characters (from Humes & Stock 1973): Legs 1-4 usually with all rami 3-segmented except the endopod of leg 4 which is 1- or 2-segmented. Reduction occurs in a posterior to anterior series. Leg 5 present in both sexes, with a free segment (occasionally not clearly delimited from the body).

<==Lichomolgidae
    |--Stellicola clausi (Rosoll 1888) (see below for synonymy) BK77
    |--Aspidomolgus BH88
    |--Haplomolgus BH88
    |--Lichomolgella BH88
    |--Octopicola [Octopicolidae] BH88
    |--Paramacrochiron BH88
    |--Pseudomacochiron BH88
    |--Sewellochiron BH88
    |--Telestacicola BH88
    |--Macrochiron [Macrochironidae] BH88
    |--Boholia cerianthiphila (n. d.) BH88
    |--Astericola asterinae (Bocquet 1952) K03
    |--Modiolicola insignis Aurivillius 1882 K03
    |--Zygomolgus poucheti (Canu 1891) K03
    |--Phoronicola Boxshall & Humes 1988 BH88
    |    `--*P. spinulatus Boxshall & Humes 1988 BH88
    |--Herrmannella Canu 1891 N94
    |    |--H. cynthiae Brian 1924 N84
    |    `--H. rostrata Canu 1891 K03
    |--Odontomolgus H94
    |    |--O. actinophorus (Humes & Frost 1964) [=Lichomolgus actinophorus] H94
    |    `--O. rhadinus [=Lichomolgus rhadinus] H94
    |--Lichomolgus K03
    |    |--L. canui Sars 1917 K03
    |    |--L. forficula Thorell 1860 K03
    |    `--L. maximus BK77
    |--Kelleria Gurney 1927 BH88, N44 [Kelleriidae]
    |    `--‘Pseudanthessius’ fucicolus Scott 1912 N44
    `--Paramolgus Humes & Stock 1972 H94
         |--P. abruptus Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. accinctus Humes 1980 H94
         |--P. alcyoniicus Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. ampullaceus Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. angustus Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. antillianus Stock 1975 H94
         |--P. centor Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. clavatus Humes & Ho 1968 H94
         |--P. congruus Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. constrictus Humes 1969 H94
         |--P. dapsilis Humes 1993 H94
         |--P. delicatulus Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. ellisellae Humes 1974 H94
         |--P. eniwetokensis Humes 1973 H94
         |--P. eparmatoides Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. extendens Humes & Dojiri 1979 H94
         |--P. gibberulus Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. inconstans Humes & Dojiri 1979 H94
         |--P. insectus Humes 1969 H94
         |--P. litophyticus Humes & Dojiri 1979 H94
         |--P. modicus Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. nephtheanus Humes 1980 H94
         |--P. ostentus Humes 1973 H94
         |--P. pavonae Humes 1994 H94
         |--P. politus Humes & Ho 1967 H94
         |--P. pollicaris Humes & Dojiri 1979 H94
         |--P. prominulus Humes 1980 H94
         |--P. quadrangulus Humes 1990 H94
         |--P. resectus Humes & Dojiri 1979 H94
         |--P. setellus Humes 1992 H94
         |--P. simulans Humes & Ho 1967 H94
         |--P. spathophorus Humes & Ho 1968 H94
         |--P. subincisus Humes 1990 H94
         `--P. timendus Humes 1990 H94

Stellicola clausi (Rosoll 1888) [=Astericola clausii; incl. Lichomolgus asterinae Bocquet 1952, Stellicola asterinae] BK77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[BH88] Boxshall, G. A., & A. G. Humes. 1988. A new genus of Lichomolgidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) associated with a phoronid in Hong Kong. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology Series 54 (6): 301-307.

[H94] Humes, A. G. 1994. Two species of Paramolgus (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Lichomolgidae) associated with the scleractinian Pavona in New Caledonia with a key to the females of Paramolgus. Beaufortia 44 (1): 1-9.

Humes, A. G., & J. H. Stock. 1973. A revision of the family Lichomolgidae Kossmann, 1877, cyclopoid copepods mainly associated with marine invertebrates. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 127.

[K03] Kim, I.-H. 2003. Copepodid stages of Critomolgus anthopleurus (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Rhynchomolgidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 558-567.

[N44] Nicholls, A. G. 1944. Littoral Copepoda from South Australia. (II) Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphyoida, Monstrilloida and Caligoida. Records of the South Australian Museum 8 (1): 1-62.

Copepoda

Specimen of Ridgewayia, from here.


Belongs within: Vericrustacea.
Contains: Podoplea, Pseudocyclops, Calanus, Diaptomidae, Centropagidae, Candaciidae, Euchaetidae, Spinocalanoidea, Epacteriscidae.

The Copepoda are an abundant group of minute aquatic crustaceans, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The body is divided by a mobile joint across the thorax; in the basal groups Platycopiidae and Calanoida, this joint is between the sixth and seventh trunk segments so that all swimming legs are anterior to the joint (Ax 2000).

Characters (from Ax 2000): Body divided between head, ten trunk segments and furca-bearing telson. Head lacking compound eyes; single nauplius eye with three pigment-cups retained in adult. First trunk segment fused with head to form cephalothorax, first thoracopods forming maxillipeds; second to sixth segments bearing thoracopods; seventh segment with genital apparatus; eighth to tenth segments without appendages. Intercoxal plate between coxae of thoracopods of a segment. Body divided into two sections by a mobile joint between fifth and sixth or sixth and seventh trunk segments. First antennae in male forming grasping organ for clasping females in transfer of spermatophores via tube-shaped sperm container at end section of sperm ducts; female with paired seminal receptacles alongside genital pores; eggs deposited in egg-sacs formed through gland secretions of oviducts, carried on body. Development originally with twelve (six nauplius, five copepodite and adult) instars.

Copepoda
    |--Platycopiidae MD01 [Platycopioida HD03, Progymnoplea]
    |    |--Platycopia MD01
    |    |--Nanocopia MD01
    |    |--Sarsicopia MD01
    |    `--Antrisocopia MD01
    `--Neocopepoda MD01
         |--Podoplea HD03
         `--Calanoida [Gymnoplea] HD03
              |  i. s.: Pseudocyclops FBI01
              |         Metridia [Metridinidae] FBI01
              |           |--M. brevicauda B26
              |           |--M. longa B26
              |           |--M. lucens B26
              |           `--M. princeps B26
              |         Paramisophria galapagensis FBI01
              |         Metacalanus FBI01
              |         Exumella FBI01
              |         Miostephos Bowman 1976 [Stephidae] B86
              |           |--M. cubrobex Bowman 1976 B86
              |           `--M. leamingtonensis Yeatman 1980 B86
              |         Calanus W81
              |         Eurytemora K-M02d
              |           |--E. affinus K-M02d
              |           `--E. herdmani B26
              |         Chiridiella MK01
              |           |--C. abyssalis MK01
              |           |--C. gibba MK01
              |           `--C. ovata MK01
              |         Temora K-M02c [Temoridae MD01]
              |           |--T. longicornis W81
              |           |--T. stylifera B26
              |           `--T. turbinata B26
              |         Pseudocalanus K-M02c
              |           |--P. elongatus Mu02
              |           `--P. minutus Mu02
              |         Diaptomidae S-MR03
              |         Eudiaptomus B01
              |           |--E. hadzici (Brehm 1939) B01
              |           `--E. vulgaris B68
              |         Sulcanus Nicholls 1945 [Sulcanidae] N45
              |           `--*S. conflictus Nicholls 1945 N45
              |         Acartia [Acartiidae] N45
              |           |--A. clausi R79
              |           |--A. hudsonica C02b
              |           |--A. longiremis B26
              |           `--A. tonsa B26
              |         Tortanus Giesbrecht 1898 N44 [Tortanidae N45]
              |           |--T. (Tortanus) barbatus (Brady 1883) [=Corynura barbata] N44
              |           `--T. discaudatus B26
              |         Parapontellidae N45
              |           |--Parapontella N45
              |           `--Neopontella N45
              |         Paracalanidae N44
              |           |--Paracalanus parvus B26
              |           `--Acrocalanus Giesbrecht 1888 N44
              |                `--A. gracilis N44
              |         Pseudophaenna [Phaennidae] N44
              |         Centropagidae N44
              |         Pontellidae N44
              |           |--Calanopia Dana 1852 N44
              |           |    `--C. thompsoni N44
              |           `--Labidocera Lubbock 1853 N44
              |                |--L. aestiva B26
              |                |--L. caudata Nicholls 1944 N44
              |                |--L. cervi Kramer 1895 N44
              |                |--L. gangetica Sewell 1934 N44
              |                |--L. japonica Mori 1935 N44
              |                `--L. rotunda Mori 1929 N44
              |         Fosshageniidae [Fosshagenioidea] MD01
              |         ‘Phyllopus’ (preoc.) [Nullisetigeridae, Phyllopodidae] MD01
              |           `--P. bidentatus B26
              |         Pseudocyclopiidae MD01
              |           |--Pseudocyclopia MD01
              |           `--Stygocyclopia balearica FBI01
              |         Aetideidae P95
              |           |--Aetidius armatus B26
              |           |--Euchirella P95
              |           |    |--E. curticauda B26
              |           |    |--E. pulchra B26
              |           |    `--E. rostrata B26
              |           |--Pseudochirella P95
              |           `--Undeuchaeta P95
              |                |--U. major B26
              |                `--U. minor B26
              |         Arietellidae MD01
              |         Augaptilus H04 [Augaptilidae MD01]
              |           `--A. filigerus H04
              |         Bathypontia N45 [Bathypontiidae MD01]
              |         Boholinidae MD01
              |         Candaciidae MD01
              |         Clausocalanus W81 [Clausocalanidae MD01]
              |           `--C. laticeps W81
              |         Diaixidae MD01
              |         Discoidae MD01
              |         Eucalanus B26 [Eucalanidae MD01]
              |           |--E. attenuatus B26
              |           `--E. elongatus B26
              |         Euchaetidae P95
              |         Heterorhabdus B26 [Heterorhabdidae MD01]
              |           |--H. norvegicus B26
              |           `--H. spinifrons B26
              |         Hyperbionychidae MD01
              |         Lucicutia Giesbrecht & Schmeil 1898 B26 [=Leuckartia (preoc.) B26; Lucicutiidae MD01]
              |           `--L. grandis (Giesbrect 1895) [=Leuckartia grandis] B26
              |         Mecynocera B26 [Mecynoceridae MD01]
              |           `--M. clausi B26
              |         Megacalanidae MD01
              |         Mesaiokeratidae MD01
              |         Parkiidae MD01
              |         Rhincalanus B26 [Rhincalanidae MD01]
              |           |--R. cornutus B26
              |           `--R. nasutus B26
              |         Ryocalanidae MD01
              |         Scolecitrichidae MD01
              |         Tharybidae MD01
              |         Epilabidocera P95
              |         Epischura B68
              |           |--E. baikalensis B68
              |           `--E. nordenskioeldi B68
              |--Spinocalanoidea MK01
              `--Epacteriscoidea FBI01
                   |--Epacteriscidae FBI01
                   `--Ridgewayiidae FBI01
                        |--Brattstromia longicaudata FBI01
                        |--Exumellina bucculenta FBI01
                        `--Ridgewayia Thompson & Scott 1903 B86
                             `--R. marki (Esterly 1911) B86

Copepoda incertae sedis:
  Linaresia Zulueta 1908 H01
  Benthomisophria palliata Sars 1909 IFS01
  Lernaeocera IFS01
    |--L. branchialis (Linnaeus 1767) IFS01
    `--L. obtusa K-M02b
  Nemesis robusta Br02
  Ommatokoita elongata Bu02
  Lernaeopodina longimana Mc02
  Clavellisa cordata Mu02
  Salminicola salmoneus KF02
  Clavella aduna K-M02a
  Parabolomochus bellones C02a
  Diocis gobinus K-M02c
  Lernaenicas longiventris K-M02e
  Calanoides carinatus K-M02f
  Acanthochondria cornuta K-M02g
  Anchistratos occidentalis K-M02h
  Orthagoriscicola muricatus K-M02i
  Philorthagoriscus serratus K-M02i
  Abscondicola humesi Fiers 1990 S03
  Anomalocera Mu02
    |--A. ornata Mu02
    `--A. pattersoni B26
  Bonierilla M62
  Doroixys uncinata M62
  Haplostoma M62
  Gunenotophorus globularis M62
  Phthiriopsis emilii BK77
  Limnocalanus macrurus VVP01
  Calamoecia ampulla TDC06
  Australocypris similis TDC06
  Meridiecyclops platypus TDC06
  Gaidius B26
    |--G. brevispinus B26
    |--G. pungens B26
    `--G. tenuispinis B26
  Dwightia Wilson 1924 B26
    |--D. gracilis [=Setella gracilis] B26
    `--D. oculata B26
  Halithalestris croni B26
  Scolecithricella B26
    |--S. minor B26
    |--S. obtusifrons B26
    `--S. ovata B26
  Pleuromamma B26
    |--P. abdominalis B26
    |--P. boreale B26
    |--P. gracilis B26
    |--P. robusta B26
    `--P. xiphias B26
  Amallophora magna B26
  Chiridius B26
    |--C. armatus B26
    `--C. obtusifrons B26
  Chirundina streetsii B26
  Cornucalanus magnus B26
  Gaetanus miles B26
  Parathalestris jacksoni B26

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[B86] Bowman, T. E. 1986. Copepoda: Calanoida. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 295-298. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513-524.

[Br02] Branstetter, S. 2002. Thresher sharks. Family Alopiidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 34-36. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[B68] Brooks, J. L. 1968. The effects of prey size selection by lake planktivores. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 273-291.

[Bu02] Burgess, G. H. 2002. Spiny dogfishes. Family Squalidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 48-57. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Needlefishes. Family Belonidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 287-289. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette. B. B. 2002b. Mackerels. Family Scombridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 516-536. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[FBI01] Fosshagen, A., G. A. Boxshall & T. M. Iliffe. 2001. The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86: 245-318.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HD03] Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler & G. B. Deets. 2003. A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, U.S.A., and designation of a new order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 582-594.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106-156.

[IFS01] Ivanenko, V. N., F. D. Ferrari & A. V. Smurov. 2001. Nauplii and copepodids of Scottomyzon gibberum (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Scottomyzontidae, a new family), a symbiont of Asterias rubens (Asteroidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114 (1): 237-261.

[K-M02a] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 162-170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02b] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02c] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002c. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 346-357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02d] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002d. Temperate basses. Family Moronidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 374-389. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02e] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002e. Bluefish. Family Pomatomidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 400-406. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02f] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002f. Jacks. Family Carangidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 411-427. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02g] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002g. Righteye flounders. Family Pleuronectidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 560-587. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02h] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002h. Filefishes. Family Monacanthidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 592-598. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02i] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002i. Ocean sunfishes. Family Molidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 603-607. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KF02] Kocik, J. F., & K. D. Friedland. 2002. Salmons and trouts. Family Salmonidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 170-181. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MK01] Markhaseva, E. L., & K. N. Kosobokova. 2001. Arctokonstantinus hardingi (Copepoda, Calanoida, Arctokonstantinidae): New family, new genus, and new species from the bathypelagial Arctic Basin. Sarsia 86: 319-324.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[Mc02] McEachran, J. D. 2002. Skates. Family Rajidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 60-75. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231-322.

[Mu02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 111-160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N44] Nicholls, A. G. 1944. Littoral Copepoda from South Australia. (II) Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphyoida, Monstrilloida and Caligoida. Records of the South Australian Museum 8 (1): 1-62.

[N45] Nicholls, A. G. 1945. A new calanoid copepod from Australia. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 11, 12: 501-514.

[P95] Park, T. 1995. Taxonomy and distribution of the marine calanoid copepod family Euchaetidae. Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 29: i-xi, 1-203.

[R79] Ryland, J. S. 1979. Structural and physiological aspects of coloniality in bryozoans. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 211-242. Academic Press: London.

[S03] Seifried, S. 2003. Phylogeny of Harpacticoida (Copepoda): Revision of “Maxillipedasphalea” and Exanechentera. Cuvillier Verlag: Göttingen.

[S-MR03] Suárez-Morales, E., & J. W. Reid. 2003. An updated checklist of the continental copepod fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with notes on its regional associations. Crustaceana 76 (8): 977-991.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

[VVP01] Väinölä, R., J. K. Vainio & J. U. Palo. 2001. Phylogeography of “glacial relict” Gammaracanthus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from boreal lakes and the Caspian and White Seas. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58: 2247-2257.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

Podoplea

Female of Oithona similis carrying eggs, from here.


Belongs within: Copepoda.
Contains: Polyarthra, Oligoarthra, Poecilostomatoida, Siphonostomatoida, Hemicyclopinidae, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinidae, Chordeumiidae.

The Podoplea is a major clade containing all the copepods except the Platycopioida and Calanoida. It is characterised by the placement of a mobile joint between the fifth and segments of the trunk, rather than between the sixth and seventh segments as in the other groups (Ax 2000).

<==Podoplea [Notodelphyoida] MD01
    |--Misophrioida HD03
    |    |  i. s.: Arcticomisophria bathylaptevensis Martínez Arbisu & Seifried 1996 S03
    |    |         Misophriella schminkei Martínez Arbizu & Jaume 1999 S03
    |    |         Misophriopsis australis Martínez Arbizu & Jaume 1999 S03
    |    |         Expansophria FBI01
    |    |           |--E. apoda FBI01
    |    |           `--E. galapagensis FBI01
    |    |--Misophriidae FBI01
    |    |--Palpophriidae FBI01
    |    `--Speleophria EHH05 [Speleophriidae FBI01]
    `--+--Mormonillidae MD01 [Mormonilloida HD03]
       |--Harpacticoida HD03
       |    |  i. s.: Microstella norvegica K-M02
       |    |         Paramphiascopsis S03
       |    |         Paramorariopsis anae Brancelj 1991 B01
       |    |         Pseudomoraria triglavensis (Brancelj 1994) B01
       |    |         Ambunguipedidae MD01
       |    |         Hamondiidae MD01
       |    |--Polyarthra S03
       |    `--Oligoarthra S03
       |--+--Poecilostomatoida HD03
       |  `--+--Thaumatopsyllidae [Thaumatopsylloida, Thespesiopsyllidae] HD03
       |     |    |--Orientopsyllus investigatoris Sewell 1949 HD03
       |     |    |--Australopsyllus fallax McKinnon 1994 HD03
       |     |    |--Thaumatopsyllus Sars 1913 [=Thespesiopsyllus Wilson 1924 (nom. van.)] HD03
       |     |    |    `--T. paradoxus Sars 1913 [=Thespesiopsyllus paradoxus] HD03
       |     |    `--Caribeopsyllus HD03
       |     |         |--C. amphipodiae Ho, Dojiri et al. 2003 HD03
       |     |         `--C. chawayi Suárez-Morales & Castellanos 1998 HD03
       |     `--+--Siphonostomatoida HD03
       |        `--Monstrilla Dana 1848 N44 [Monstrillidae, Monstrilloida HD03]
       |             |--M. canadensis McMurrich 1917 N44
       |             |--M. conjunctiva Giesbrecht 1902 N44
       |             |--M. intermedia Aurivillius 1898 N44
       |             |--M. longispinosa Bourne 1890 N44
       |             |--M. mixta Scott 1914 N44
       |             |--M. ostroumowi Karaviev 1895 N44
       |             |--M. serricornis B26
       |             `--M. wandelii Stephensen 1913 N44
       `--+--Gelyella Rouch & Lescher-Moutoué 1977 R86 [Gelyellidae, Gelyelloida HD03]
          |    `--G. droguei Rouch & Lescher-Moutoué 1977 R86
          `--Cyclopoida [Gnathostoma] HD03
               |  i. s.: Ginesia Jaume & Boxshall 1997 MA01b
               |           `--G. longicaudata Jaume & Boxshall 1997 MA01b
               |         Smirnovipina Martínez Arbizu 1997 MA01b
               |           `--S. barentsiana (Smirnov 1935) MA01b
               |         Troglocyclops Rocha & Iliffe 1994 MA01b
               |--Hemicyclopinidae MA01b
               |--Cyclopidae S-MR03
               |--Cyclopinidae H86
               |--Chordeumiidae BO01
               |--Mantra Leigh-Sharpe 1934 MA01a [Mantridae MD01]
               |--Buproridae MD01
               |--Schizoproctidae [Botrylophyllidae] MD01
               |--Archinotodelphys Lang 1949 MA01a [Archinotodelphyidae MD01]
               |--Fratiidae MD01
               |--Lernaeidae MD01
               |--Ozmanidae MD01
               |--Speleoithonidae MD01
               |--Cucumaricola B88 [Cucumaricolidae BO01]
               |    `--C. notabilis Paterson 1958 B88
               |--Enterognathus BK77 [Ascidicolidae BO01, Enterognathinae]
               |    `--E. comatulae BK77
               |--Notodelphyidae H01
               |    |--Pachypygus gibber H01, R96
               |    `--Doropygus BK77 [Doropygidae MD01]
               |         `--D. pulex BK77
               |--Oithona Baird 1843 [incl. Oithonina Sars 1913; Oithonidae] N44
               |    |--O. atlantica B26
               |    |--O. attenuata Farran 1913 N44
               |    |--O. nana Giesbrecht 1892 [=*Oithonina nana] N44
               |    |--O. plumifera B26
               |    `--O. similis K-MC02
               |--Psammocyclopinidae MA01a
               |    |--Psammocyclopina Wells 1967 MA01a
               |    |    |--*P. hindleyi Wells 1967 MA01a
               |    |    `--P. georgei Martínez Arbizu 2001 MA01a
               |    `--Metacyclopina Lindberg 1953 MA01a
               |         |--‘Cyclopina’ agilis Wilson 1932 MA01a
               |         |--M. brevisetosa Herbst 1975 MA01a
               |         |--M. harpacticoidea (Klie 1949) MA01a
               |         |--M. improvisa Herbst & Zo 1981 MA01a
               |         `--M. roscoffensis Bozic 1953 MA01a
               `--Abrsidae KT09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Ax, P. 2000. Muticellular Animals: the phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[B88] Boxshall, G. A. 1988. A review of the copepod endoparasites of brittle stars. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology series 54 (6): 261-270.

[BO01] Boxshall, G. A., & S. Ohtsuka. 2001. Two new families of copepods (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on echinoderms. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 96-105.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513-524.

[EHH05] Eberhard, S. M., S. A. Halse & W. F. Humphreys. 2005. Stygofauna in the Pilbara region, north-west Western Australia: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 167-176.

[FBI01] Fosshagen, A., G. A. Boxshall & T. M. Iliffe. 2001. The Epacteriscidae, a cave-living family of calanoid copepods. Sarsia 86: 245-318.

[H86] Herbst, H.-V. 1986. Copepoda: Cyclopoida aus dem meeres- und brackwasser-interstitial. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 313-320. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HD03] Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler & G. B. Deets. 2003. A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, U.S.A., and designation of a new order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 582-594.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: A case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106-156.

[KT09] Karanovic, T. & D. Tang. 2009. A new species of the copepod genus Australoeucyclops (Crustacea: Cyclopoida: Eucyclopinae) from Western Australia shows the role of aridity in habitat shift and colonisation of ground water. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 247-263.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Sculpins. Family Cottidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 346-357. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-MC02] Klein-MacPhee, G., & B. B. Collette. 2002. Scorpionfishes. Family Scorpaenidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 331-338. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1-124.

[MA01a] Martínez Arbizu, P. 2001a. Psammocyclopinidae fam. n., a new monophyletic group of marine Cyclopoida (Copepoda, Crustacea), with the description of Psammocyclopina georgei sp. n. from the Magellan region. Revista Bras. Zool. 18 (4): 1325-1339.

[MA01b] Martínez Arbizu, P. 2001b. Hemicyclopinidae n. fam., a new monophyletic group of marine cyclopinid Cyclopoida, with description of one new genus and two new species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida). Senckenbergiana Biologica 81 (1-2): 37-54.

[N44] Nicholls, A. G. 1944. Littoral Copepoda from South Australia. (II) Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Notodelphyoida, Monstrilloida and Caligoida. Records of the South Australian Museum 8 (1): 1-62.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3-35.

[R86] Rouch, R. 1986. Copepoda: Les harpacticoïdes souterrains des eaux douces continentales. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 321-355. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S03] Seifried, S. 2003. Phylogeny of Harpacticoida (Copepoda): Revision of “Maxillipedasphalea” and Exanechentera. Cuvillier Verlag: Göttingen.

[S-MR03] Suárez-Morales, E., & J. W. Reid. 2003. An updated checklist of the continental copepod fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, with notes on its regional associations. Crustaceana 76 (8): 977-991.

Hyolithidae

Specimens of Hyolithes bisulcatus, from Malinky (2002). Figs 10, 13 and 14 are dorsal views; figs 11 and 15 are lateral; figs 12 and 16 are ventral.


Belongs within: Hyolitha.

The Hyolithidae were a family of hyoliths found during the Cambrian and Ordovician. Though the circumscription of the family has varied widely over the years (and the type genus, Hyolithes, seems to have long been the default repository for almost any hyolith), it was defined by Kruse (2002) as including those species in which a ligula is present on the venter, and the dorsoventral transition is decoupled from the lateral transition such that the venter perimeter is greater than the dorsal perimeter. Malinky (2002) indicated that Hyolithes should be restricted to species possessing a lateral furrow near each edge of the dorsum. He also classified the genera Diplotheca and Camerotheca within the Hyolithidae (the latter as a synonym of Hyolithes). These two genera had previously been classified separately on the basis of the structure of the shell apex, which was supposed to be cylindrical and septate rather than simply conical as in Hyolithidae, but Malinky (1990) demonstrated that these supposed characters were not visible in the original specimens.

<==Hyolithidae [Camerothecida, Camerothecidae, Camerothecina, Diplothecida, Diplothecidae, Diplothecina]
    |--Novakotheca Malinky 1990 M02
    |--Raitilites Marek 1989 K02
    |--Hallotheca Malinky, Linsely & Yochelson 1987 M02
    |--Korilithes Missarzhevsky 1969 M02
    |--Joachimilites Marek 1967 K02
    |    `--J. modestus MB05
    |--Yalarrnga Kruse 2002 K02
    |    `--*Y. mara Kruse 2002 K02
    |--Diplotheca Matthew 1885 M90
    |    `--*D. hyattiana Matthew 1885 (see below for synonymy) M90
    |--Helenia Walcott 1889 F62
    |    `--*H. bella Walcott 1889 F62
    |--Sololites Marek 1967 K02
    |    |--*S. ferrigenus Marek 1967 K02
    |    `--S. kankari Kruse 2002 K02
    |--Nitoricornus Syssoiev 1973 M90
    |    |--N. communis (Billings 1872) M90
    |    |--N. danianum (Matthew in Walcott 1884) [=Hyolithes danianus, Camerotheca daniana] M90
    |    `--N. impar (Ford 1872) M90
    |--Carinolithes Syssoiev 1958 M02
    |    |--*C. pennatulus (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithus pennatulus] M02
    |    |--C. hospes (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes hospes, Hyolithes hospe (l. c.), Hyolithus (l. c.) hospes] M02
    |    |--‘Hyolithus’ pennatuloides Cobbold & Pocock 1934 M02
    |    |--C. tantulus Marek 1967 M02
    |    |--C. tjikilirri Kruse 2002 K02
    |    `--C. triumvir (Holm 1893) [=Hyolithes triumvir, Hyolithus (l. c.) triumvir] M02
    `--Hyolithes Eichwald 1840 M02 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*H. acutus Eichwald 1840 M02
         |--H. acadica Hartt in Walcott 1884 (see below for synonymy) M90
         |--H. angustus M02
         |--H. ardmillanensis M02
         |--H. arenophilus Holm 1893 M02
         |--H. attenuatus Walcott 1890 M02
         |--H. bicostatus Novák 1891 M02
         |--H. bisulcatus Holm 1893 [=Hyolithus (l. c.) bisulcatus] M02
         |--H. communis Tate 1892 K02
         |--H. concinnus Holm 1893 [=Hyolithus (l. c.) concinnus] M02
         |--H. conularoides Tate 1892 K02
         |--H. costatus Matthew 1901 M90
         |--H. costulatus Barrande 1867 M02
         |--H. degeeri Holm 1893 M02
         |--H. giganteus MB05
         |--H. gracilior Matthew 1895 M90
         |--H. gracilis Matthew 1885 [=Hyolithes (*Camerotheca) gracilis] M90
         |--H. gracillimus Matthew 1901 M90
         |--H. gregaria W77
         |--H. hathewayi F62
         |--H. incurvatus Novák 1891 M02
         |--H. innotatus Holm 1893 [=Hyolithus (l. c.) innotatus] M02
         |--H. lanceolatus (Morris 1845) [=Theca lanceolatus] F62
         |--H. latus Eichwald 1860 [incl. H. latus var. recidivus] M02
         |--H. lineatus Kjerulf 1865 M02
         |--H. lineolatus Salter in Salter & Blandford 1865 M02
         |--H. magnificus F62
         |--H. micmac Matthew in Walcott 1884 [=H. (Camerotheca) micmac, H. (Orthotheca) micmac] M90
         |--H. norvegicus Kjerulf 1865 [incl. Theca elegantula Kjerulf 1865] M02
         |--H. obesus (n. d.) M02
         |--H. orientalis Waagen 1880 PY84
         |--H. poulseni Resser 1938 M02
         |--H. primordialis (Hall 1861) [=Theca primordialis] W77
         |--H. princeps F62
         |--H. tenuistriatus L95
         |--H. triangularis Portlock 1843 M02
         `--H. tricarinatus F62

Nomen nudum: Camerotheca snajdri Syssoiev 1962 M90

*Diplotheca hyattiana Matthew 1885 [=Hyolithes hyattianus; incl. D. hyattiana var. caudata Matthew 1885, H. caudatus] M90

Hyolithes Eichwald 1840 M02 [=Hyolithus (l. c.) M02; incl. Camerotheca Matthew 1885 M90, Centrotheca Salter 1866 F62, Cleidotheca Salter 1866 F62, Cleodora Ludwig 1864 nec Péron & Lesueur 1810 nec Mulsant 1850 F62, Orthoceras Münster 1840 non Bruguière 1789 F62, Pugiunculus Barrande 1847 F62, Vaginella d’Orbigny 1850 F62]

Hyolithes acadica Hartt in Walcott 1884 [=Diplotheca acadica, Theca acadica; incl. D. a. var. crassa Matthew 1885, Hyolithes crassus, D. a. var. obtusa Matthew 1886, D. a. var. sericea Matthew 1886, Hyolithes sericeus] M90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F62] Fisher, D. W. 1962. Small conoidal shells of uncertain affinities. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W98–W143. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[K02] Kruse, P. D. 2002. Biostratigraphic potential of Middle Cambrian hyoliths from the eastern Georgina Basin. Alcheringa 26: 353–398.

[L95] Landing, E. 1995. Upper Placentian–Branchian series of mainland Nova Scotia (middle–upper Lower Cambrian): faunas, paleoenvironments, and stratigraphic revision. Journal of Paleontology 69 (3): 475–495.

[M90] Malinky, J. M. 1990. Cambrian Hyolitha from northeast Canada: reappraisal of the hyolith orders Camerothecida and Diplothecida. Journal of Paleontology 64 (4): 587–595.

[M02] Malinky, J. M. 2002. A revision of Early to Mid Ordovician hyoliths from Sweden. Palaeontology 45: 511–555.

[MB05] Mus, M. M., & J. Bergström. 2005. The morphology of hyolithids and its functional implications. Palaeontology 48 (6): 1139–1167.

[PY84] Peel, J. S., & E. L. Yochelson. 1984. Permian Toxeumorphorida from Greenland: an appraisal of the molluscan class Xenoconchia. Lethaia 17: 211–221.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

Alpheoidea

Hippolyte leptocerus, copyright Florence Gully.


Belongs within: Caridea.
Contains: Synalpheus, Alpheus.

The Alpheoidea contains the snapping shrimps (Alpheidae) and cleaner shrimps (Hippolytidae). The first pair of pereiopods in members of this group is well developed; in the snapping shrimps one chela is enlarged and used to produce a loud cracking noise. The Alpheidae also have the eyes at least partially hidden by the front margin of the carapace. In the Hippolytidae, the eyes are exposed as in other shrimp groups; members of this family have the carpus of pereiopod 2 subdivided into a number of short segments.

Characters (from Chace 1992): First pair of pereiopods distinctly chelate; first maxilliped with exopod far removed from endite; second maxilla with endite well developed.

<==Alpheoidea
    |--Ogyrides Stebbing 1914 [=Ogyris Stimpson 1860 (preoc.); Ogyridae, Ogyrididae] MD01
    |--Bythocarididae MD01
    |    |--Bythocaris MD01
    |    |--Cryptocheles MD01
    |    `--Bathyhippolyte MD01
    |--Barbouriidae MD01
    |    |--Barbouria Rathbun 1912 MD01, H86
    |    |    `--B. cubensis (von Martens 1872) H86
    |    |--Janicea Manning & Hart 1984 MD01, H86
    |    |    `--J. antiguensis (Chace 1972) H86
    |    `--Parhippolyte Borradaile 1899 MD01, H86
    |         `--P. uveae Borradaile 1899 H86
    |--Alpheidae D84
    |    |--Synalpheus D84
    |    |--Salmoneus ortmanni M85
    |    |--Alpheopsis trispinosa (Stimpson 1861) MG-H11
    |    |--Alpheus D84
    |    |--Potamalpheops Powell 1979 H86
    |    |    `--P. stygicola (Hobbs 1973) [=Alpheopsis stygicola] H86
    |    |--Automate H86
    |    |    |--A. branchialis Holthuis & Gottlieb 1958 KK03
    |    |    `--A. dolichognatha de Man 1888 H86
    |    `--Metabetaeus Borradaile 1899 H86
    |         |--M. lohena Banner & Banner 1960 H86
    |         `--M. minutus (Whitelegge 1897) H86
    `--Hippolytidae [Alopidae] MD01
         |--Alope spinifrons (Milne Edwards 1837) H86
         |--Latreutes fucorum [incl. L. ensiferus] M85
         |--Chorismus antarcticus (Pfeffer 1887) FZA07
         |--Caridion MD01
         |--Thor amboinensis de Man 1888 TSH09
         |--Merhippolyte chacei Kensley, Tanter & Griffin 1987 MG-H11
         |--Tozeuma tomentosum (Baker 1904) MG-H11
         |--Nauticaris Bate 1888 [Nauticarididae] B04
         |    `--N. marionis Bate 1888 FZA07
         |--Somersiella Hart & Manning 1981 H86
         |    `--S. sterreri Hart & Manning 1981 H86
         |--Calliasmata Holthuis 1973 H86
         |    |--C. pholidota Holthuis 1973 H86
         |    `--C. rimolii Chace 1975 H86
         |--Saron TSH09
         |    |--S. marmoratus (Oliver 1811) TSH09
         |    `--S. neglectus de Man 1902 TSH09
         |--Lebbeus MG-H11
         |    |--L. clarehannah McCallum & Poore 2010 MG-H11
         |    `--L. polaris (Sabine 1824) FZA07
         |--Spirontocaris M85
         |    |--S. lilljeborgii M85
         |    |--S. phippsii M85
         |    `--S. spinus M85
         |--Lysmata MG-H11
         |    |--L. amboinensis (de Man 1888) MG-H11
         |    |--L. rathbunae M85
         |    |--L. seticaudata (Risso 1816) KK03
         |    `--L. wurdemanni M85
         |--Eualus MG-H11
         |    |--E. fabricii M85
         |    |--E. gaimardii M85
         |    |--E. macilentus (Krøyer 1841) FZA07
         |    |--E. occultus (Lebour 1936) KK03
         |    `--E. pusiolus M85
         `--Hippolyte M85
              |--H. bifidirostris HS01
              |--H. curacaoensis M85
              |--H. holthuisi Zariquiey-Alvarez 1953 KK03
              |--H. hunti BK77
              |--H. inermis Leach 1815 KK03
              |--H. leptocerus (Heller 1863) KK03
              |--H. leptometrae Ledoyer 1969 KK03
              |--H. mauritanicus Lucas 1846 E12
              |--H. pleuracanthus M85
              `--H. turgida CS77

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B04] Boyko, C. B. 2004. The Bopyridae (Crustacea, Isopoda) parasites of the Stylodactylidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea). Zoosystema 26 (2): 199–210.

Chace, F. A., Jr. 1992. On the classification of the Caridea (Decapoda). Crustaceana 63 (1): 70-80.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D84] Dardeau, M. R. 1984. Synalpheus shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae). I. The Gambarelloides group, with a description of a new species. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 7 (2): 1–125.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FZA07] Fiege, D., H. Zibrowius & P. M. Arnaud. 2007. New deep-water records of cocoons of undescribed species of Fecampiidae from Antarctica to the Bay of Biscay (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Rhabdocoela). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 1–6.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H86] Holthuis, L. B. 1986. Decapoda. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 589–615. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KK03] Kocataş, A., & T. Katağan. 2003. The decapod crustacean fauna of the Turkish seas. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 63–74.

[M85] Markham, J. C. 1985. A review of the bopyrid isopods infesting caridean shrimps in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, with special reference to those collected during the Hourglass Cruises in the Gulf of Mexico. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 7 (3): 1–156.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[TSH09] Titelius, M. A., A. Sampey & C. G. Hass. 2009. Crustaceans of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 145–176.