Ochnineae

Ochna mossambicensis, from here.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Ochnineae is a group of mostly tropical (with a few subtropical) trees and shrubs that were united by Thorne (2000) on the basis of rbcL analysis.

<==Ochnineae
    |--Medusagyne [Medusagynaceae] T00
    |--Caryocaraceae T00
    |    |--Anthodiscus T00
    |    `--Caryocar DL07
    |         |--C. brasiliense K06
    |         |--C. coriaceum K06
    |         `--C. villosum K06
    `--Ochnaceae WM09
         |  i. s.: Indovethia H03
         |         Schuurmansiella H03
         |         Schuurmansia K78
         |           |--S. elegans Bl. 1850 [incl. S. parviflora Ridl. 1916] K78
         |           `--S. henningsii Sch. 1888 (see below for synonymy) K78
         |         Brackenridgea forbesii Tiegh. 1902 K78
         |--Quiinaceae T00
         |    |--Touroulia YY22
         |    `--Quiina DL07
         `--+--Ochnoideae T00
            |    |--Lophira alata T00, FGN07
            |    `--Ochna mossambicensis DL07, WM09
            `--+--Cespedisia DL07
               `--Sauvagesia [Sauvagesioideae] DL07
                    `--S. erecta C55

Schuurmansia henningsii Sch. 1888 [incl. S. bamleri Sch. & Laut. 1901, S. coriacea Smith 1941, S. crassinervia Gilg 1925, S. gilgiana Laut. 1905, S. grandiflora Smith 1941, S. bamleri var. longifolia Laut. 1905, S. longifolia (Laut.) Gilg 1925, S. lophiroides Gilg 1925, S. microcarpa Capit. 1910, S. montana Smith 1941, S. oreophila Gilg 1925, S. rauwolfioides Hallier f. 1913, S. schlechteri Gilg 1925] K78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313-338.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[K78] Kanis, A. 1978. Ochnaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 216-221. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Cucurbitales

Acalbir Datisca cannabina, copyright H. Zell.


Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Coriaria, Begoniaceae, Cucurbiteae.

The Cucurbitales is a clade of morphologically somewhat divergent taxa supported by molecular analyses. The clade is most diverse in tropical regions, though there are also numerous temperate species. The Cucurbitaceae, the squash and gourd family, is a group mostly comprised of annual vines, many species of which are cultivated for their fruit. Species of Datisca, a genus of herbaceous plants with pinnate leaves found in western and central Asia and western North America, host nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Storied fusiform cambial initials; perforation plates not or minimally bordered; rays wide, multiseriate; cuticle wax crystalloids absent; leaves spiral, secondary veins palmate; corolla or perianth valvate, stomata raised, the two whorls rather similar in texture; ovule with bistomal micropyle.

Cucurbitales [Begoniineae, Cucurbitineae]
    |  i. s.: Apodanthaceae [Apodanthoideae] APG16
    |           |--Apodanthes T00
    |           `--Pilostyles T00
    |         Corynocarpus Forster & Forster 1776 A61 [Corynocarpaceae APG16]
    |           |--C. cribbianus (Bailey) Smith 1956 (see below for synonymy) F78
    |           `--C. laevigatus Forster & Forster 1776 A61
    |         Tetramelaceae [Tetrameleae, Tetrameloideae] APG16
    |           |--Octomeles sumatrana Miq. 1861 T00, C78 [incl. O. moluccana Teysm. & Binn. ex Hassk. 1866 C78]
    |           `--Tetrameles nudiflora Brown in Benn. 1838 (see below for synonymy) C78
    |--Anisophylleaceae WM09
    |    |--Anisophyllea fallax WM09
    |    |--Combretocarpus T00
    |    |--Poga T00
    |    `--Polygonanthus T00
    `--+--Coriaria WM09
       `--+--+--Begoniaceae WM09
          |  `--Datisca WM09 [Datiscaceae, Datiscoideae]
          |       `--D. cannabina WM09
          `--Cucurbitaceae WM09
               |  i. s.: Sechium edule Z02
               |         Trichosanthes P03
               |           |--T. bracteata P03
               |           |--T. cucumerina P03
               |           |--T. dioica SDK05
               |           |--T. lepiniana D07
               |           |--T. ovigera LK14
               |           `--T. radix WN00
               |         Marah H03
               |         Actinostemma YY22
               |         Benincasa YY22
               |         Blastania YY22
               |         Brandegea YY22
               |         Bryonopsis YY22
               |         Calycophysum YY22
               |         Cerasiocarpum bennettii SR07
               |         Cionosicyos YY22
               |         Corallocarpus PP07
               |           |--C. conocarpus PP07
               |           `--C. epigaeus PP07
               |         Cucumeropsis YY22
               |         Cyclanthera YY22
               |         Cyclantheropsis YY22
               |         Dactyliandra welwitschii PP07
               |         Delognaea YY22
               |         Dendrosicyos YY22
               |         Dicaelosperma YY22
               |         Elateriopsis YY22
               |         Frantzia YY22
               |         Gomophogyne YY22
               |         Guraniopsis YY22
               |         Gymnopetalum YY22
               |         Hanburia YY22
               |         Lagenaria BR65
               |           |--L. siceraria BR65
               |           `--L. vulgaris A27 [incl. Cucurbita lagenaria C55]
               |         Luffa BR65
               |           |--L. acutangula KJ05
               |           |--L. aegyptiaca LK14
               |           |    |--L. a. var. aegyptiaca LK14
               |           |    `--L. a. var. leiocarpa LK14
               |           |--L. cylindrica BR65
               |           `--L. graveolens LK14
               |         Melancium YY22
               |         Melothria [Melothrieae] BR65
               |           |--M. domingensis J87
               |           |--M. maderaspatana (Linnaeus) Cogniaux 1881 (see below for synonymy) BR65
               |           `--M. micrantha Mueller ex Cogniaux 1881 (see below for synonymy) BR65
               |         Microsechium YY22
               |         Muellerargia timorensis LK14
               |         Oreosyce YY22
               |         Peponium YY22
               |         Pisosperma YY22
               |         Pittiera YY22
               |         Polakowskia YY22
               |         Posadea YY22
               |         Pteropepon YY22
               |         Raphanocarpus YY22
               |         Roseanthus YY22
               |         Sechiopsis YY22
               |         Selysia YY22
               |         Schizocarpum YY22
               |         Sicana YY22
               |         Sicyos Linnaeus 1753 A61
               |           |--S. angulata Linnaeus 1753 [incl. S. australis Endl. 1833, S. fretensis Hook. f. 1847] A61
               |           `--S. laciniatus J87
               |         Sicyosperma YY22
               |         Toxanthera YY22
               |         Tumamoca YY22
               |         Vaseyanthus YY22
               |         Homenosicyos YY22
               |         Abobra YY22
               |         Acanthosicyos YY22
               |           |--A. horridus CV06
               |           `--A. nandianus BP87
               |         Adenopus YY22
               |         Alsomitra YY22
               |         Ampelosicyos YY22
               |         Anguriopsis YY22
               |         Anisosperma YY22
               |         Biswarea YY22
               |         Coccinia grandis PP07
               |         Cogniauxia YY22
               |         Dieudonnaea YY22
               |         Dimorphochlamys YY22
               |         Eulenburgia YY22
               |         Eureiandra YY22
               |         Fevillea YY22 [Fevilleae BR65]
               |         Gerrardanthus YY22
               |         Gurania spinulosa K06
               |         Gynostemma YY22
               |         Helmontia YY22
               |         Hemsleya YY22
               |         Herpetospermum YY22
               |         Hodgsonia YY22
               |         Macrozanonia YY22
               |         Maximowiczia YY22
               |         Peponopsis YY22
               |         Phialocarpus YY22
               |         Physedra YY22
               |         Siolmatra YY22
               |         Sphaerosicyos YY22
               |         Telfairia YY22
               |         Thladiantha YY22
               |         Trochomeria YY22
               |         Trochomeriopsis YY22
               |         Apodanthera YY22
               |         Cayaponia americana J87
               |         Cerathosanthes YY22
               |         Kedrostis YY22
               |         Raphanistrocarpus YY22
               |         Wilbrandia YY22
               |         Cucumella clavipetiolata CV06
               |         Cephalandra indica P03
               |         Sicyon nihoaensis O94
               |         Diplocyclos palmatus LK14
               |         Zehneria mucronata LK14
               |--Nhandiroboideae T00
               `--Cucurbiteae T00

Corynocarpus cribbianus (Bailey) Smith 1956 [=Cyanocarpus cribbiana Bailey 1897, Helicia cribbiana (Bailey) Bailey 1901; incl. Corynocarpus australasica White 1933] F78

Melothria maderaspatana (Linnaeus) Cogniaux 1881 [=Cucumis maderaspatanus Linnaeus 1753; incl. Bryonia scabrella Linnaeus 1781, Mukia scabrella (Linnaeus) Arnott 1841] BR65

Melothria micrantha Mueller ex Cogniaux 1881 [=Cucurbita micrantha Mueller 1855; incl. Cucumis muelleri Naudin 1859, Melothria muelleri Bentham 1866] BR65

Tetrameles nudiflora Brown in Benn. 1838 [incl. T. grahamiana Wight 1853, T. horsfieldii Steud. 1841] C78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[C78] Croft, J. R. 1978. Datiscaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 114–122. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 79–88.

[F78] Foreman, D. B. 1978. Corynocarpaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 111–113. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 121–130.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 121–142.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 165–172.

[SDK05] Sharma, L. K., N. K. Dadhich & A. Kumar. 2005. Plant based veterinary medicine from traditional knowledge of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 43–52.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[WN00] Wang H., T. B. Ng, V. E. C. Ooi & W. K. Liu. 2000. Effects of lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities on hepatoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 32: 365–372.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

Salicaceae

Casearia sylvestris, photographed by Hugh Wilson.


Belongs within: Violineae.
Contains: Salix.

The Salicaceae as used in recent references combines the restricted Salicaceae of older references (Salix, willows, and Populus, poplars) with the paraphyletic 'Flacourtiaceae'. Though the wind-pollinated, northern temperate Salicaceae sensu stricto are distinct from other, mostly tropical, members of the family, phylogenetic analyses have nested them deep within the 'Flacourtiaceae', and the name Salicaceae takes precedence for a combined family. Phylogenetic analysis supports a clade of Casearia and related taxa as sister to the remaining Salicaceae, with the latter possessing leaves with a 'salicoid tooth', an apical tooth with a small vein entering and expanding within the tooth, and a terminal gland or stout hair (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Casearia is a genus of tropical trees bearing alternate leaves with theoid teeth (with a glandular deciduous tip). Species of Salicaceae used as commercial sources for wood include poplars and malas, Homalium foetida, of south-east Asia and New Guinea.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Evergreen (occasionally deciduous) trees; cocarcinogen, tanniniferous; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundle arcuate or annular with flange bundles; leaves spiral or two-ranked, occasionally opposite, supervolute-curved or involute, teeth salicoid [with small vein proceeding into tooth and expanding, apex of tooth a spherical gland or stout hair]; inflorescence various; flowers 3-6-merous, calyx with (0-)3-8(-15) sepals, often valvate (occasionally connate), corolla absent or with same number of petals as sepals (rarely with more petals than sepals), disc often with glands or lobes; anthers 1 to many, centrifugal (occasionally simultaneous) initiation; styles separate or fused; ovules straight (occasionally anatropous), micropyle bistomal/zig-zag (occasionally exostomal or endostomal), embryo sac elongated, more or less protruding into the micropyle; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds arillate or with hairs of arillate origin; testa also multiplicative and more or less fleshy.

Salicaceae [Flacourtiaceae]
    |--+--Lunania mauritii DL07, J87
    |  `--Casearia [Casearieae] DL07
    |       |--C. arborea SWK87
    |       |--C. corymbosa MM96
    |       |--C. decandra SWK87
    |       |--C. guianensis SWK87
    |       |--C. grewiaefolia K03
    |       |--C. pachyphylla H03
    |       `--C. sylvestris J87
    `--+--Scyphostegia [Scyphostegiaceae] DL07
       `--+--+--Hasseltia DL07
          |  `--Flacourtioideae T00
          |       |--+--Dovyalis DL07
          |       |  `--Flacourtia DL07
          |       `--+--Abatia DL07
          |          `--+--Banara splendens DL07, J87 [incl. B. hotteana J87]
          |             `--Prockia DL07
          `--+--Poliothyrsis DL07
             `--+--Salix DL07
                `--Populus DL07
                     |--P. alba H06
                     |--P. balsamifera PS08
                     |--P. × canescens H06
                     |--P. deltoides H06
                     |--P. grandidentata JVHN90
                     |--P. nigra H06
                     |    |--P. n. var. nigra H06
                     |    `--P. n. var. italica H06
                     |--P. tremola W01
                     |--P. tremuloides PS08
                     `--P. trichocarpa JK06

Salicaceae incertae sedis:
  Scolopia H03 [Scolopieae T00]
    `--S. rhinanthera H03
  Scaphocalyx H03
  Homalium K03 [Homalieae T00]
    |--H. foetida K03
    `--H. racemosum SWK87
  Bembicieae T00
  Neopringlea T00
  Oncoba T00
  Grandidiera YY22
  Calencob YY22
  Lindackeria YY22
  Microsemma YY22
  Xylotheca YY22
  Bennettia trinervia [=Terminalia trinervia] C78
  Buchnerodendron YY22
  Gertrudia YY22
  Gynocardia YY22
  Itoa YY22
  Ryparosa YY22
  Solmsia YY22
  Idesia polycarpa LO98
  Trichostephanus YY22
  Azara YY22
    |--A. lanceolata D03
    `--A. microphylla H59
  Dasylepis YY22
  Patrisia YY22
  Phyllobotryum YY22
  Prockiopsis YY22
  Rawsonia YY22
  Tetrathylacium YY22
  Myroxylon YY22
  Camptostylus YY22
  Mayna YY22
  Ophiobotrys YY22
  Lacistematoideae T00
    |--Lacistema T00
    `--Lozania T00
  Samyda dodecandra J87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C78] Coode, M. J. E. 1978. Combretaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 43-110. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173-180.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280-286.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Phyllanthaceae

Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus officinalis, photographed by L. Shyamal.


Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Phyllanthaceae is a pantropical family of flowering plants, treated in the past as a subgroup of the Euphorbiaceae but now separated due to their distinct phylogenetic position within the Malpighiales (Davis et al. 2007). They often have finely-cracking bark, two-ranked and entire leaves lacking glands, and explosively dehiscent fruits (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Some species of Phyllanthus are utilised for food: for instance, the sour fruits of Phyllanthus acidus and P. officinalis are used in pickles (Polunin 1988).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Herbs to trees; plants aluminium accumulators; cyanogenesis via the tyrosine pathway, tropane and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, cucurbitacins, nonhydrolysable tannins present, ellagic acid absent; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; leaves on orthotropic axes often reduced, spiral, on plagiotropic axes two-ranked (occasionally spiral), involute or conduplicate, margins entire (sometimes toothed); calyx 2-8(-12) sepals, often basally connate, corolla (0, 3-)5(-9) petals, disc extra- or interstaminal (sometimes absent or central); staminate flowers: anthers 2-35, often more or less connate, extrorse, pollen reticulate; carpellate flowers: gynoecium 1 [2-5(-15)], outer integument 2-many and inner integument 2-3(-5) cells across, nucellus 10 or more cells across, protruding, obturator placental, styles usually bifid, stigmas with adaxial furrow, wet; fruit a septicidal capsule/schizocarp; seeds large; tegmen 2-5(-20) cells thick, exotegmen with ribbon-like cells (smetimes radially elongated); endosperm copious (occasionally absent).

<==Phyllanthaceae
    |--Bischofia [Bischofiaceae] DL07
    |    `--B. javanica C78
    `--Phyllanthus [Phyllanthoideae] VR02
         |--P. acidus [=Cicca acida] P88
         |--P. airy-shawii MS03
         |--P. amarus PP07
         |--P. beddomei (Gamble) Mohanan 1985 [=Reidia beddomei Gamble 1925] VR02
         |--P. calycinus SM06
         |--P. clarkei Hooker 1887 MS03
         |--P. dinteri CV06
         |--P. emblica P03
         |--P. fraternus KJ05
         |--P. fuernrohrii KM08
         |--P. lamprophyllus HM03
         |--P. lindenianus J87
         |    |--P. l. var. lindenianus J87
         |    `--P. l. var. inaequifolius J87
         |--P. maderaspatensis EF04
         |--P. myriophyllus J87
         |--P. niruri C55
         |--P. officinalis [=Emblica officinalis] P88
         |--P. parvifolius Don 1825 [incl. P. juniperinus Wallich ex Mueller-Argoviensis 1863] MS03
         |--P. polyphyllus UB06
         |--P. praetervisus Mueller-Argoviensis 1865 [=P. juniperinus var. obovatus Mueller-Argoviensis 1863] MS03
         |--P. pseudoparvifolius Mitra & Sanjappa 2003 MS03
         |--P. reticulatus GC05
         |--P. rotundifolius Klein ex Willdenow 1805 A02
         |--P. urinaria K03
         |--P. virgatus P03
         `--P. watsonii P88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Augustine S. J., Fr. K. T. 2002. Rediscovery of Phyllanthus rotundifolius Klein ex Willd., Euphorbiaceae, after 101 years (1899-2000) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, south India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 562-564.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[HM03] Holloway, J. D., & S. E. Miller. 2003. The composition, generic placement and host-plant relationships of the joviana-group in the Parallelia generic complex (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Catocalinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 111-128.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[MS03] Mitra, R. L. & M. Sanjappa. 2003. Phyllanthus parvifolius, P. clarkei (Euphorbiaceae) and related Indian taxa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 1-20.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[UB06] Udayan, P. S. & I. Balachandran. 2006. Cleistanthus sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach.—a rare and little known endemic plant rediscovered from wild populations in Kollam district of Kerala state, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 217-218.

[VR02] Viswanathan, M. B., N. Ramesh, M. Maridass & U. Manikandan. 2002. Rediscovery of a critically endangered species Phyllanthus beddomei (Gamble) Mohanan, Euphorbiaceae, from Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 560-562.

Polygonaceae

Double-gee, Emex australis, from here.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Rumex.

The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants found worldwide. Over 1000 species have been assigned to the Polygonaceae (Thorne 2000), with the highest diversity in north temperate regions (Henty 1978). Characteristic of the family is the presence in the majority of species of an ocrea, a nodal sheath at the base of the leaf. Among the commercially significant members of the family are Fagopyrum esculentum, buckwheat, grown for its grain, and Rheum rhaponticum, rhubarb, grown for its edible stems.

Characters (from Henty 1978): Herbs or shrubs, sometimes scandent; stems often swollen at nodes. Leaves simple, spirally arranged; usually sheath present, with ocrea. Flowers axillary and terminal, regular, mostly bisexual, if unisexual the plants monoecious or dioecious; pedicels usually articulate; perianth lobes 4-6, imbricate, free or shortly connate, persistent, often accrescent; stamens 4-9, free or basally connate, anthers two-celled, longitudinally dehiscent; disc often glandular; ovary superior, one-celled, with solitary basal ovule; styles 2-3, free or connate at base. Fruit a nut, trigonous or lenticular, rarely globose, enclosed in persistent perianth or not; embryo excentric, curved or straight, surrounded by mealy endosperm.

<==Polygonaceae [Polygonales]
    |--Rumex H78
    |--Emex australis KM08
    |--Oxygonum YY22
    |--Ruprechtia YY22
    |--Symmeria Y22
    |--Triplaris americana H06
    |--Polygonella YY22
    |--Pteroxygonum YY22
    |--Oxyria digyna O88
    |--Reynoutria japonica TG88
    |--‘Pterococcus’ Pallas 1773 (nom. rej.) non Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.) FT93
    |--Antigonon leptopus Hooker & Arnott 1841 H78
    |--Eriogonum CS90 [Eriogonoideae T00]
    |    `--E. tomentosum CS90
    |--Fagopyrum BWT03
    |    |--F. esculentum BWT03
    |    `--F. tataricum BO08
    |--Persicaria GK00
    |    |--P. chinensis D07
    |    |--P. glacialis O88
    |    |--P. hydropiper D07
    |    |--P. nepalensis O88
    |    |--P. polystachya O88
    |    `--P. prostrata GK00
    |--Coccoloba SWK87 [Coccoloboideae T00]
    |    |--C. costata J87
    |    |--C. pauciflora J87
    |    |--C. picardae J87
    |    |--C. rugosa SWK87
    |    `--C. uvifera SWK87
    |--Koenigia O88
    |    |--K. delicatula O88
    |    |--K. forrestii O88
    |    |--K. islandica O88
    |    |--K. nepalensis O88
    |    `--K. nummularifolia O88
    |--Aconogonum O88
    |    |--A. campanulatum O88
    |    |--A. molle O88
    |    |    |--A. m. var. molle O88
    |    |    `--A. m. var. frondosum O88
    |    |--A. rumicifolium O88
    |    |--A. sibiricum O88
    |    `--A. tortuosum O88
    |--Rheum H78
    |    |--R. acuminatum O88
    |    |--R. australe O88
    |    |--R. delavayi O88
    |    |--R. moorcroftianum O88
    |    |--R. nobile O88
    |    |--R. rhaponticum H78
    |    |--R. spiciforme O88
    |    `--R. webbianum O88
    |--Bistorta O88
    |    |--B. affinis O88
    |    |--B. amplexicaulis O88
    |    |    |--B. a. var. amplexicaulis O88
    |    |    `--B. a. var. pendula O88
    |    |--B. emodi O88
    |    |--B. macrophylla O88
    |    |--B. perpusilla O88
    |    |--B. vaccinifolia O88
    |    `--B. vivipara O88
    |--Muehlenbeckia H78
    |    |--M. adpressa GK00
    |    |--M. astonii D95
    |    |--M. australis WH02
    |    |--M. axillaris CA27
    |    |--M. complexa CA27
    |    |--M. debilis D95
    |    |--M. ephedroides CA27
    |    |--M. florulenta EF04
    |    |--M. gracillima Meissn. in DC. 1856 H78
    |    |--M. monticola Pulle 1912 H78
    |    |--M. × muricatula Colenso 1890 [M. axillaris × M. ephedroides] CA27
    |    |--M. platyclada (Muell.) Meissn. 1865 (see below for synonymy) H78
    |    |--M. sagittifolia D95
    |    `--M. zippelii (Meissn.) Danser 1940 (see below for synonymy) H78
    `--Polygonum [Polygonoideae] H78
         |--P. alpinum C55a
         |--P. amphibium C55a
         |--P. arenastrum GK00
         |--P. attenuatum Brown 1810 H78
         |--P. aviculare CA27
         |--P. barbatum Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. benguetense Merr. 1915 H78
         |--P. chilense D03
         |--P. chinense Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. convolvulus C55b
         |--P. cumingianum [incl. P. celebicum] H78
         |--P. decipiens Brown 1810 [=P. minus ssp. decipiens (Brown) Danser 1927] H78
         |--P. dichotomum H78
         |--P. dumetorum C55b
         |--P. emarginatum C55b
         |--P. fagopyrum C55b
         |--P. glabrum VB02
         |--P. hydropiper BB07
         |--P. lapathifolium Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. longisetum DeBr. in Miq. 1854 H78
         |--P. maritimum C55b
         |--P. minus Huds. 1762 H78
         |--P. nepalense Meissn. 1826 (see below for synonymy) H78
         |--P. orientale Linnaeus 1753 H78
         |--P. paniculatum [incl. P. polyanthos] H78
         |--P. perfoliatum Linnaeus 1762 H78
         |--P. persicaria C55b
         |--P. plebeium CA27
         |    |--P. p. var. plebeium PP07
         |    `--P. p. var. indica PP07
         |--P. pubescens H78
         |--P. runcinatum Don 1825 H78
         |--P. sachalinense Schmidt ex Maxim. 1859 CD07
         |--P. senegalense GC05
         |--P. serrulatum A27
         |--P. strigosum Brown 1810 H78
         `--P. tataricum C55b

Nomen nudum: Muehlenbeckia axephedra Cockayne & Allan 1927 CA27

Muehlenbeckia platyclada (Muell.) Meissn. 1865 [=Coccoloba platyclada Muell. 1863, Calacinum platycladum Macbride 1927] H78

Muehlenbeckia zippelii (Meissn.) Danser 1940 [=Polygonum zippelii Meissn. 1865; incl. M. rhyticarpa Muell. 1890, M. rhyticarya Muell. 1866] H78

Polygonum nepalense Meissn. 1826 [incl. P. alatum Buch.-Ham. ex Spreng. 1827, P. microcephalum var. papuanum Warb. 1893] H78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111-121.

[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm – the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18-23.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CS90] Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. Journal of Arachnology 18: 167-172.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D95] Dawson, M. I. 1995. Contributions to a chromosome atlas of the New Zealand flora. 33. Miscellaneous species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 477-487.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[H78] Henty, E. E. 1978. Polygonaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 222-248. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Amaranthaceae

Globe amaranth Gomphrena globosa, from Missouri Botanical Garden.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Amaranthus, Ptilotus.

The Amaranthaceae are a family of mostly herbaceous plants found worldwide, with the highest diversity in the Americas. Economically significant members of the family include Spinacia oleracea, spinach, which is used as a pot herb. Members of the Amaranthaceae have been divided between two subfamilies according to the manner of anther dehiscence, which is unilocular in the Gomphrenoideae and bilocular in the Amaranthoideae.

Characters (from Kanis 1978): Herbs, rarely shrubs or woody climbers. Leaves opposite or alternate, without stipules, simple. Inflorescences racemose or more or less paniculate, of single flowers or cymose flower clusters, with persistent bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, usually with two bracteoles; tepals (3-)5, free; stamens (3-)5, opposite tepals, filaments usually more or less joined at base, usually with interposed staminodes or pseudostaminodes, anthers one- or two-celled; ovary superior, one-celled, with 1(-many) basal ovules often pendent from erect funicle. Fruit usually a nut, sometimes a capsule or berry.

<==Amaranthaceae
    |--Gomphrena K78 [Gomphrenoideae T00]
    |    |--G. brachystylis LK14
    |    |    |--G. b. ssp. brachystylis LK14
    |    |    `--G. b. ssp. pindanensis LK14
    |    |--G. breviflora LK14
    |    |--G. canescens LK14
    |    |--G. celosioides Mart. 1825 K78
    |    |--G. connata LK14
    |    |--G. diffusa LK14
    |    |--G. eichleri LK14
    |    |--G. flaccida LK14
    |    |--G. globosa Linnaeus 1753 K78
    |    |--G. humifusa LK14
    |    |--G. leptoclada LK14
    |    |--G. parviflora LK14
    |    |--G. serrata ACW01
    |    `--G. tenella LK14
    `--Amarantheae [Amaranthoideae] T00
         |--Amaranthus K78
         `--Ptilotus M99

Amaranthaceae incertae sedis:
  Spinacia oleracea PT01
  Cyathula prostrata (Linnaeus) Bl. 1826 K78
  Dicraurus YY22
  Pleuropterantha YY22
  Acnida YY22
  Amblogyna polygonoides [=Amarantus polygonoides] C55
  Psilotrichum ferrugineum (Roxburgh) Moq. in DC. 1849 [incl. P. trichotomum Bl. 1826] K78
  Pupalia K78
    |--P. lappacea [incl. P. atropurpurea] K78
    `--P. micrantha LK14
  Arthraerua leubnitziae CV06
  Marcelliopsis splendens CV06
  Calicorema squarrosa CV06
  Hermbstaedtia spathulifolia CV06
  Nothosaerva brachiata PP07
  Digera PP07
    |--D. arvensis VB02
    `--D. muricata PP07
  Celosia argentea Linnaeus 1753 K78
    |--C. a. var. argentea K78
    `--C. a. var. cristata [=C. cristata Linnaeus 1753] K78
  Aerva K78
    |--A. javanica PP07
    `--A. lanata (Linnaeus) Schultes 1819 K78
  Chamissoa J87
    |--C. altissima J87
    `--C. nodiflora C55
  Haloxylon B14
    |--H. persicum RBA00
    `--H. salicornicum AGF98
  Iresine K78
    |--I. aggregata C55
    |--I. herbstii Hooker 1864 K78
    `--I. vermicularis [incl. Illecebrum vermiculatum] C55
  Euxolus C55
    |--E. caudatus [=Chenopodium caudatum] C55
    |--E. oleraceus [=Amarantus oleraceus] C55
    `--E. polygamus [=Amarantus polygamus] C55
  Deeringia K78
    |--D. amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr. 1917 (see below for synonymy) K78
    |--D. arborescens (Brown) Druce 1917 [incl. D. altissima (Moq.) Muell. 1860] K78
    `--D. polysperma (Roxburgh) Moq. in DC. 1849 (see below for synonymy) K78
  Alternanthera Forsk. 1775 A61
    |--A. angustifolia LK14
    |--A. bettzickiana (Regel) Nichols. 1885 K78
    |--A. denticulata Br. 1810 [incl. A. sessilis Hook. f. 1854 non (Linnaeus) DC. 1813] A61
    |--A. nana LK14
    |--A. nodiflora GK00
    |--A. paronychioides VB02
    |--A. philoxeroides C74
    |--A. pungens Kunth 1818 [incl. A. repens (Linnaeus) Link 1821 non Gmel. 1791] K78
    `--A. sessilis (Linnaeus) DC. 1813 [incl. A. tenuissima (Suess.) Backer 1949] K78
  Achyranthes K78
    |--A. aspera Linnaeus 1753 [incl. A. grandifolia Moq. 1849] K78
    |    |--A. a. var. aspera PP07
    |    |--A. a. var. argentea PP07
    |    `--A. ‘argentea’ var. virgata C55
    |--A. bidentata Bl. 1826 K78
    |--A. fauriei MH98
    |--A. fruticosa C55
    `--A. velutina SJP60
         |--A. v. f. velutina SJP60
         `--A. v. f. rosea Suessenguth 1936 SJP60

Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr. 1917 [incl. D. baccata (Retz.) Moq. 1849, D. celosioides Brown 1810 (nom. illeg.), D. indica Retz. ex Bl. 1826] K78

Deeringia polysperma (Roxburgh) Moq. in DC. 1849 [incl. D. indica Zoll. ex Moq. 1849 non Retz. ex Bl. 1826] K78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 376–380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[C74] Crowder, J. P. 1974. Exotic Plant Pests of South Florida. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (USA).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[K78] Kanis, A. 1978. Amaranthaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 12–42. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 15–78.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649–654.

[RBA00] Rifai, L. B., M. Abu Baker & Z. S. Amr. 2000. Ecology, distribution and status of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis syriaca, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 19–26.

[SJP60] St. John, H., & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401–403.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Rumex

Bitter dock Rumex obtusifolius, photographed by Emmet Judziewicz.


Belongs within: Polygonaceae.

Rumex, the docks, is a genus of about 200 species of herbaceous plants found worldwide, with the greatest number of species in north temperate regions. A number of species have become widely spread outside their native ranges as pasture weeds; the curled dock Rumex crispus is toxic to livestock, causing dermatitis and gastric illness (Henty 1978).

Characters (from Henty 1978): Annual or perennial herbs, often acid. Leaves spirally arranged, or lower leaves in basal rosette; sheaths short, ocreas well developed. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate; flowers bisexual, monoecious or dioecious, stipitate, articulate on arched pedicels, in bracteate fascicles, which may be many-flowered forming partial whorls. Tepals in two whorls of three; outer whorl small, not much accrescent after anthesis; inner whorl finally much enlarged, enclosing fruit; stamens 6; ovary trigonous; styles 3, short, with large dissected stigmas. Fruit sharply trigonous.

<==Rumex
    |--R. acetosa PT01
    |--R. acetosella C55a
    |--R. alpinus C55b
    |--R. brownii Campd. 1819 [incl. R. fimbriotus Brown 1810 (preoc.)] H78
    |--R. bucephalophorus PT98
    |    |--R. b. ssp. bucephalophorus PT98
    |    `--R. b. ssp. gallicus PT98
    |--R. conglomeratus C55b
    |--R. crispus Linnaeus 1753 H78
    |--R. decumbens D03
    |--R. dentatus VB02
    |--R. flexuosus A27
    |--R. hydrolapathum LDB98
    |--R. lunaria ES06
    |--R. maritimus LDB98
    |--R. neglectus A27
    |--R. nepalensis O88
    |--R. obtusifolius C55b
    |--R. palustris LDB98
    |--R. patientia O88
    |    |--R. p. ssp. patientia O88
    |    `--R. p. ssp. pamiricus O88
    |--R. pulcher PT98
    |--R. scutatus C55b
    `--R. tuberosus PT98
         |--R. t. ssp. tuberosus PT98
         `--R. t. ssp. creticus PT98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[ES06] Erber, D., & M. Schöller. 2006. Revision of the Cryptocephalus-species of the Canary Islands and Madeira (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 85-107.

[H78] Henty, E. E. 1978. Polygonaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 222-248. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[LDB98] Lenssen, J. P. M., G. E. ten Dolle & C. W. P. M. Blom. 1998. The effect of flooding on the recruitment of reed marsh and tall forb plant species. Plant Ecology 139: 13-23.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

Naucleeae

Flower heads of Sarcocephalus latifolius, photographed by Scamperdale.


Belongs within: Cinchonoideae.

The Naucleeae are a pantropical clade in the plant family Rubiaceae, though the greater part of their diversity are found in Africa and Asia with only a few Neotropical species. Razafimandimbision & Bremer (2001) diagnosed Naucleeae on the basis of their globose spherical heads and floral nectaries embedded in the hypanthia, as well as supporting the clade by molecular analysis.

Characters (from Razafimandimbison & Bremer 2001): Trees, shrubs, rarely lianas. Raphides absent. Terminal vegetative buds conical, flattened or pyramidal. Leaves mostly opposite, rarely whorled; stipules interpetiolar, rarely intrapetiolar, caducous, rarely persistent, entire. Inflorescences terminal, lateral, or both lateral and terminal, congested into spherical heads. Flowers 4-5(-6)-merous; corolla aestivation imbricate or valvate; floral nectaries present, inconspicuous, embedded in hypanthia and ovaries. Stamens with filaments shorter than anthers; anthers mostly basifixed, rarely medifixed. Ovary bilocular, placentas attached to base, one third, middle, upper third, or apex of septa, with one to numerous predominantly imbricately pendulous, or ascendent ovules in each locule. Fruits mostly free, sometimes fused into multiple, succulent fruits; capsular fruits dehiscing loculicidally, septicidally, or both, mostly from base, rarely from top. Seeds winged or not; exotestal cells with thickenings along inner tangential wall. Secondary pollen presentation present, with pollen deposited on immature stigmatic lobes. Pollen tricolporate.

<==Naucleeae [Naucleaceae, Naucleoideae]
    |--Cephalanthus [Cephalantheae] RB01
    |    |--C. glabratus RB01
    |    |--C. natalensis RB01
    |    |--C. occidentalis RB01
    |    `--C. pusillus JD05
    `--+--+--Hallea RB01
       |  |    |--H. rubrostipulata RB01 [=Mitragyna rubrostipulata BJ99]
       |  |    `--H. stipulosa RB01
       |  `--Mitragyna RB01
       |       |--M. diversifolia RB01
       |       |--M. inermis RB01
       |       |--M. parvifolia P03
       |       |--M. rotundifolia RB01
       |       `--M. speciosa RB01
       |--+--Uncaria RB01
       |  |    |--U. gambir P88
       |  |    |--U. guianensis RB01
       |  |    |--U. phillipinensis RB01
       |  |    `--U. rhynchophylla RB01
       |  `--+--Pausinystalia johimbe RB01
       |     `--Corynanthe RB01
       |          |--C. mayumbensis RB01
       |          `--C. pachyceras RB01
       `--+--+--Neolamarckia [Neolamarckiinae] RB01
          |  |    `--N. cadamba RB01
          |  `--Naucleinae RB01
          |       |  i. s.: Ochreinauclea maingayi RB01
          |       |--Burttdavya nyassica RB01
          |       `--+--Sarcocephalus [Sarcocephaleae, Sarcocephalinae] RB01
          |          |    |--S. coadunata C78
          |          |    |--S. latifolius RB01
          |          |    `--S. pobeguinii RB01
          |          `--Nauclea RB01
          |               |  i. s.: N. latifolia FGN07
          |               |--+--N. diderrichii RB01
          |               |  `--N. xanthoxylon RB01
          |               `--+--N. orientalis RB01
          |                  `--N. subdita RB01
          `--Adininae RB01
               |  i. s.: Sinoadina RB01
               |         Diyaminauclea RB01
               |         Khasiaclunea RB01
               |         Ludekia borneensis RB01
               |--+--Adina RB01
               |  |    |--A. cordifolia J07
               |  |    `--A. rubella RB01
               |  `--+--+--Adinauclea fagifolia RB01
               |     |  `--Haldina cordifolia RB01
               |     `--+--Pertusadina eurhynca RB01
               |        `--+--Metadina trichotoma RB01
               |           `--Neonauclea RB01
               |                |  i. s.: N. calycina K03
               |                |--N. longipedunculata RB01
               |                `--+--N. clemensii RB01
               |                   `--Myrmeconauclea strigosa RB01
               `--+--Breonadia salicina RB01
                  `--+--+--Janotia macrostipula RB01
                     |  `--Gyrostipula RB01
                     |       |--G. comoriensis RB01
                     |       `--G. foveolata RB01
                     `--+--Neobreonia decaryana RB01
                        `--Breonia RB01
                             |  i. s.: B. capuronii RB01
                             |         B. decaryana RB01
                             |         B. fragifera RB01
                             |         B. sphaerantha RB01
                             |         B. stipulata RB01
                             |         B. taolagnaroensis RB01
                             |--B. macrocarpa RB01
                             `--+--B. chinensis RB01
                                `--B. havilandiana RB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny – case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413-435.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[FGN07] Fontaine, B., O. Gargominy & E. Neubert. 2007. Land snail diversity of the savanna/forest mosaic in Lopé National Park, Gabon. Malacologia 49 (2): 313-338.

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 203-206.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515-538.