Euepiproctophora

Epiophlebia superstes, photographed by chochoensis.


Belongs within: Euodonata.
Contains: Stenophlebioptera, Anisoptera.

The odonate clade Euepiproctophora includes the living dragonflies and the Asian relict genus Epiophlebia. The name of the clade is derived from the development of the epiprocts at the end of the male's abdomen to form part of the claspers used in mating. Epiophlebia comprises two species of odonate found in Japan (E. superstes) and the Himalayas (E. laidlawi); though similar to a typical dragonfly in overall appearance, they have petiolate wings more similar to those of the damselflies in the Zygoptera (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

See also: A halfway house, halfway down Honshu island.

Characters (from Fleck et al. 2003; Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Frons bulbous; thoracic interpleural suture dorsally present; epiprocts enlarged in male to form appendage of claspers; naiad with rectal chamber lined with respiratory pads; postdiscoidal area on wing broader than area between MA and RP3/4 along posterior wing margin.

<==Euepiproctophora
    |--Epiophlebia [Epiophlebiidae, Epiophlebioidea, Epiophlebioptera] FB03
    |    |--E. laidlawi GE05
    |    `--E. superstes (Selys 1889) FB03
    `--+--Erichschmidtia Pritykina 1968 [Erichschmidtiidae] FB03
       `--Anisopteromorpha [Heterophlebioidea] FB03
            |--Trigonoptera FB03
            |    |  i. s.: Gondvanogomphus Schlüter & Hartung 1982 [Gondvanogomphidae] FB03
            |    |--Stenophlebioptera FB03
            |    `--Anisoptera FB03
            `--Heterophlebioptera FB03
                 |--Myopophlebiidae FB03
                 |    |--Paraplagiophlebia loneuxi FB03
                 |    `--Paraheterophlebia marci Nel & Henrotay 1993 FB03
                 `--+--Liassophlebia [Liassophlebiidae] FB03
                    |    `--L. magnifica Tillyard 1925 FB03
                    `--+--Juraheterophlebia Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 [Juraheterophlebiidae] FB03
                       |    `--*J. kazakhstanensis Fleck, Bechly et al. 2003 FB03
                       `--Heterophlebia [Heterophlebiidae] FB03
                            `--H. buckmani (Brodie 1849) FB03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FB03] Fleck, G., G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs, E. Jarzembowski, R. Coram & A. Nel. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Stenophlebioptera (Odonata: Epiproctophora). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 39 (1): 55-93.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Odonatoptera

Reconstruction of Meganeuropsis by Karen Carr.


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Pandiscoidalia.

The Odonatoptera contain the living Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) plus all fossil taxa more closely related to odonates than other living insects. The earliest known odonatopterans are recorded from the Upper Carboniferous. The best known of the basal odonatopterans are the meganeurids which had the largest wingspans of any known insect, up to about 640 mm in Meganeuropsis permiana (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Wings with anal region reduced; distinctive form of bracing with kink in CuP where it meets AA; only two articular plates at wing base.

<==Odonatoptera [Libellulida, Libellulidea, Meganeurina, Odonatoidea, Odonatomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Hemeroscopus [Hemeroscopidae] R02
    |           `--H. baissicus Pritykina 1977 R02
    |         Eocordulia cretacea R02
    |         Erasipteroides [Erasipteridae] GE05
    |           `--E. valentini GE05
    |         Namurotypus [Namurotypidae] RP02
    |         Titanophasma fayoli RP02
    |         Parahemiphlebia mickoleiti GE05
    |--Eugeropteridae [Geroptera] GE05
    |    |--Eogeropteron lunatum RP02
    |    `--Geropteron arcuatum RP02
    `--Holodonata GE05
         |--Protodonata [Meganeuroidea, Meganeuromorpha] GE05
         |    |--Paralogidae GE05
         |    |--Kohlwaldiidae NB01
         |    |--Kargalotypus Rohdendorf 1962 [Kargalotypidae, Kargalotypinae] NB01
         |    |    `--*K. kargalensis (Martynov 1932) [=Megatypus kargalensis] NB01
         |    `--Meganeuridae GE05
         |         |--Arctotypus sinuatus GE05
         |         |--Meganeuropsis permiana Z02 [incl. M. americana GE05]
         |         |--Meganeura monyi GE05
         |         |--Megatypus schucherti GE05
         |         `--Tupus gracilis GE05
         `--Odonatoclada RP02
              |--Campylopteridae [Campylopterodea] RP02
              `--Panodialata NB01
                   |--Lapeyria [Lapeyriidae] NB01
                   |    `--L. magnifica Nel, Gand & Garric 1999 NB01
                   `--Nodialata RP02
                        |--Pandiscoidalia RP02
                        `--Ditaxineuroidea [Protanisoptera] RP02
                             |  i. s.: Hemizygopteron Zallesskiy 1955 NB01
                             |--Ditaxineuridae GE05
                             |--Permaeschna Martynov 1931 NB01 [Permaeschnidae GE05]
                             |--Polytaxineura Tillyard 1935 NB01 [Polytaxineuridae RP02]
                             |--Callimokaltaniidae RP02
                             `--Kaltanoneuridae RP02

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NB01] Nel, A., O. Bethoux, G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & F. Papier. 2001. The Permo-Triassic Odonatoptera of the “protodonate” grade (Insecta: Odonatoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (4): 501-525.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Special features of the study of fossil insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 8-12. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RP02] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & L. N. Pritykina. 2002. Superorder Libellulidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Odonata Fabricius, 1792. The dragonflies. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 97-104. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Triadophlebiomorpha

Diagram of preserved wing portion of Zygophlebiella curta, showing pattern of basal venation. From Nel et al. (2001).


Belongs within: Pandiscoidalia.

The Triadophlebiomorpha are a clade of Permian and Triassic insects of the odonate stem group, known from central Asia and Russia. Many triadophlebiomorphs have petiolate wings similar to those of modern damselflies; however, Xamenophlebia ornata is notable for its relatively broad wings with a strongly undulated hindwing.

Characters (from Nel et al. 2001): Wing with very long petiolus, with veins MP and Cu basally separated, distally fused together with AA, CuA + CuP + AA separate more distally from MP; MP distinctly curved distad of its origin at distal angle of discoidal cell; very long and oblique discoidal vein MAb; CuA without distal posterior branches.

<==Triadophlebiomorpha
    |  i. s.: Piroutetia Meunier 1907 [Piroutetiidae] NB01
    |           `--*P. liasina Meunier 1907 NB01
    |--Triadophlebiida NB01
    |    |--Mitophlebia [Mitophlebiidae] NB01
    |    `--Triadophlebioidea NB01
    |         |--Paurophlebia Pritykina 1981 [Paurophlebiidae] NB01
    |         |    `--P. lepida NB01
    |         `--Triadophlebiidae NB01
    |              |--Triadophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
    |              `--Cladophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
    |                   `--C. parvula Pritykina 1981 NB01
    `--Zygophlebiida NB01
         |--Xamenophlebioidea NB01
         |    |--Xamenophlebia Pritykina 1981 [Xamenophlebiidae] NB01
         |    |    `--*X. ornata Pritykina 1981 NB01
         |    `--Permophlebia Nel, Bethoux et al. 2001 [Permophlebiidae] NB01
         |         `--*P. uralica Nel, Bethoux et al. 2001 NB01
         `--Zygophlebiidae [Zygophlebioidea] NB01
              |--Zygophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*Z. ramosa Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |--Zygophlebiella Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*Z. curta Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |--Mixophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
              |    `--*M. mixta Pritykina 1981 NB01
              `--Cyrtophlebia Pritykina 1981 NB01
                   `--*C. sinuosa Pritykina 1981 NB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[NB01] Nel, A., O. Bethoux, G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & F. Papier. 2001. The Permo-Triassic Odonatoptera of the “protodonate” grade (Insecta: Odonatoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (4): 501-525.

Sphagnales

Capsules of Sphagnum fimbriatum, showing ripening specimens as well as a number that have already had their caps thrown off explosively by a build-up of gases within the capsule. Photo from the British Bryological Society.

Belongs within: Musci.

The Sphagnum mosses are, together with the Tasmanian Ambuchanania leucobryoides, the sister group to all other living mosses. They have thalloid protonemata, leafy shoots lacking rhizoids, and the capsules are not held above the gametophytes by a seta but by an extension of the gametophyte itself called the pseudopod. The capsules are globose and open explosively rather than through a peristome (Smith & Smith 2004). The known fossil record of Sphagnales extends back to the Late Permian, where they are represented by the genus Protosphagnum (Bateman et al. 1998).

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Leaves unistratose. Antheridia globose, borne singly in axils of branch leaves. Antheridia in groups of one to five at apex of short lateral branch.

<==Sphagnales [Sphagneae]
    |--Protosphagnum BC98
    `--Sphagnum Linnaeus 1753 [Sphagnaceae] SK02
         |--S. australe Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. capillifolium WP05
         |--S. centrale Jensen 1896 SK02
         |    |--S. c. var. centrale SK02
         |    `--S. c. var. flavoglaucescens SK02
         |--S. compactum DC. 1805 [=S. rigidum var. compactum] SK02
         |--S. cristatum Hampe 1874 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. cuspidatum Erhr. ex Hoffm. 1796 SK02
         |    |--S. c. var. cuspidatum D03
         |    `--S. c. var. microcarpum D03
         |--S. dominii Kavina 1916 SK02
         |--S. falcatulum Besch. 1885 SK02 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. fallax FHH01
         |--S. fimbriatum SK02
         |    |--S. f. var. fimbriatum D03
         |    `--S. f. var. robustum D03
         |--S. fuscovinosum Seppelt & Crum 1999 SK02
         |--S. magellanicum Brid. 1798 [incl. S. medium] SK02
         |    |--S. m. var. magellanicum D03
         |    |--S. ‘medium’ var. fusco-rubellum D03
         |    |    |--S. m. var. f. f. fusco-rubellum D03
         |    |    `--S. m. var. f. f. brachydasyclada D03
         |    `--S. ‘medium’ var. pallido-carneum D03
         |         |--S. m. var. p. f. pallido-carneum D03
         |         `--S. m. var. p. f. brachyorthoclada D03
         |--S. meridense J87
         |--S. novo-zelandicum Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. palustre Linnaeus 1753 [incl. S. cymbifolium, S. latifolium (nom. illeg.)] SK02
         |    |--S. p. var. palustre D03
         |    `--S. ‘cymbifolium’ var. condensatum D03
         |--S. perichaetiale Hampe 1847 [incl. S. beccarii Hampe 1872, S. vitjianum Schimp. ex Warnst. 1891] SK02
         |--S. subnitens FHH01
         `--S. subsecundum Nees 1819 [incl. S. contortum] SK02
              |--S. s. var. subsecundum SK02
              `--S. s. var. rufescens (Nees & Hornsch.) Huebener 1833 SK02

Nomina nuda: Sphagnum bicolor Hampe ex Broth. & Watts 1912 SK02
             Sphagnum centrale var. flavoglaucescens f. brachyclada Warnst. ex Paris 1900 SK02
             Sphagnum centrale var. flavopallescens f. brachydasyclada Weymouth 1903 non S. medium var. fusco-rubellum f. brachydasyclada [=Sphagnum centrale var. fuscopallescens f. brachydasyclada Weymouth 1903] SK02
             Sphagnum cymbifolium var. carneopallidum Warnst. ex Watts 1899 SK02
             Sphagnum australe var. grandiosum Warnst. ex Weymouth 1903 SK02
             Sphagnum grandifolium var. brachycladium f. laxifolium Warnst. ex Watts 1912 non S. novo-zelandicum var. laxifolium [=S. grandifolium var. laxifolium Warnst. ex Watts 1912] SK02
             Sphagnum subsecundum var. macrophyllum Müll.Hal. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902 nec S. moorei var. macrophyllum nec S. wattsii var. macrophyllum SK02
             Sphagnum rigescens Warmst. in Dusén 1903 D03

Sphagnum australe Mitt. 1859 [=S. antarcticum var. australe (nom. illeg.); incl. S. antarcticum, S. campbellianum (nom. inv.), S. confertum, S. antarcticum var. densissimum, S. falcirameum (nom. inv.), S. antarcticum var. fluctuans, S. antarcticum var. macrocephalum, S. macrorigidum, S. orthocladum (nom. inv.), S. antarcticum var. subsquarrosum, S. weymouthii] SK02

Sphagnum cristatum Hampe 1874 [incl. S. decipiens var. obovatum f. anocladum, S. grandifolium var. brachycladum Warnst. 1911, S. cymbophyllum (nom. inv.), S. decipiens, S. grandifolium var. densum Warnst. 1911, S. grandifolium Warnst. 1900, S. leionotum, S. maximum, S. decipiens var. obovatum, S. pachycladum (n. n.), S. decipiens var. rotundatum, S. decipiens var. obovatum f. squarrulosum, S. subbicolor, S. wardellense, S. whiteleggei, S. wilcoxii] SK02

Sphagnum falcatulum Besch. 1885 SK02 [=S. cuspidatum var. falcatulum D03; incl. S. brotherusii SK02, S. drepanocladum SK02, S. lancifolium SK02, S. wattsii var. leptocladum SK02, S. wattsii var. macrophyllum non S. moorei var. macrophyllum SK02, S. naumannii SK02, S. brotherusii var. plumosulum SK02, S. rodwayi SK02, S. scortechinii SK02, S. serratifolium SK02, S. serratum var. serrulatum SK02, S. trichophyllum SK02, S. wattsii SK02]

Sphagnum novo-zelandicum Mitt. 1859 [incl. S. novo-zelandicum var. commutatum, S. comosum, S. cymbifolioides Müll.Hal. 1851 (preoc.), S. pseudorufescens var. fuscorufescens f. dicladum, S. dubiosum, S. pseudorufescens var. flavescens, S. pseudorufescens var. fuscorufescens, S. contortum var. intermedium, S. laticoma, S. novo-zelandicum var. laxifolium, S. contortum var. laxum, S. moorei var. macrophyllum, S. novo-zelandicum var. molle, S. molliculum, S. moorei, S. mossmannianum (nom. inv.), S. pseudorufescens var. pallens, S. novo-zelandicum var. pauciporosum, S. pseudorufescens, S. novo-zelandicum var. pulvinatum, S. contortum var. scorpioides, S. subsecundum var. subcontortum, S. submolliculum, S. sullivanii, S. pseudorufescens var. virescens] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC98] Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kenrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck & W. E. Stein. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263-292.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[WP05] Wikström, N., & K. M. Pryer. 2005. Incongruence between primary sequence data and the distribution of a mitochondrial atp1 group II intron among ferns and horsetails. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 484-493.

Polytrichaceae

Polytrichum commune, photographed by James K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Musci.

The Polytrichaceae are a family of mostly relatively large mosses found worldwide. They are distinguished by the presence of a nematodontous peristome around the mouth of the spore capsule: i.e. the opening has a surrounding ring of teeth, but rather than being constructed of reduced cell wall remnants as in the Polytrichaceae's sister group (the Bryopsida), the teeth are composed of entire cells. Species of this family are commonly referred to as 'hair-cap mosses' due to the presence of hair on the calyptrae of many species. The genus Dawsonia includes the world's tallest moss species, D. superba, reaching 50 cm in height.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Plants large, usually rhizomatous. Stems with central strand with differentiated conductive tissue. Leaves usually differentiated into sheathing base with narrow costa, and blade composed largely of expanded costa bearing longitudinal lamellae on adaxial side, lamina usually narrow, 1-2-stratose; margins toothed or entire, sometimes bordered. Capsules erect to horizontal, spherical to cylindrical, terete or 2-6-angled, hypophysis present or absent; annulus absent; peristome nematodontous with 32-64 teeth; columella expanded at top to membranous epiphragm joined to tips of peristome teeth; calyptrae cucullate, glabrous or hairy.

<==Polytrichaceae [Polytrichales, Polytrichidae]
    |--Oligotrichum FHH01
    |    |--O. hercynicum FHH01
    |    `--O. tenuirostre A49
    |--Dendroligotrichum dendroides FHH01 [=Polytrichum dendroides SK02]
    |--Psilopilum Brid. 1827 SK02
    |    |--P. bellii M49
    |    |--P. compressum D03b
    |    `--P. pyriforme (Hampe) Jaeger 1879 [=Catharinea pyriformis, Atrichum pyriforme, Oligotrichum pyriforme] SK02
    |--Notoligotrichum Smith 1971 SK02
    |    |--N. australe (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--N. crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Polytrichastrum Smith 1971 SK02
    |    |--P. alpinum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--P. formosum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum formosum Hedw. 1801] SK02
    |--Polytrichadelphus (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. 1859 SK02
    |    |--P. dendroides D03b
    |    |--P. magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt. 1859 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--P. squamosa D03b
    |--Atrichum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    |    |--A. androgynum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1875 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. angustatum [=Catharinea angustata, Polytrichum angustatum] SK02
    |    |--A. flavisetum N02
    |    `--A. undulatum FHH01
    |--Dawsonia Brown 1811 [Dawsoniaceae, Dawsoniales] SK02
    |    |--D. longiseta Hampe 1860 [=D. longisetacea (l. c.); incl. D. appressa, D. victoriae] SK02
    |    |--D. polytrichoides Brown 1811 [=Triplocoma polytrichoides; incl. D. polytrichoides var. minor (n. n.)] SK02
    |    `--D. superba Greville 1847 SK02
    |         |--D. s. var. superba SK02
    |         `--D. s. var. pulchra Zanten 1972 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Pogonatum Palisot de Beauvois 1804 SK02
    |    |--P. aloides FHH01
    |    |--P. dendroides D03a
    |    |--P. microstomum N02
    |    |--P. neesii (Müll.Hal.) Dozy 1856 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--P. robustum [incl. P. ekmanii Thériot 1944] J87
    |    |--P. subtortile [incl. P. subtortile var. teysmannianum] SK02
    |    |--P. subulatum (Brid.) Brid. 1827 [incl. Polytrichum nanournigerum, Pog. nanournigerum] SK02
    |    |--P. tortile [=Polytrichum tortile] SK02
    |    `--P. tubulosum Dixon 1941 SK02
    `--Polytrichum Hedw. 1801 SK02
         |--P. brachypelma Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. cataractarum Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. commune Hedw. 1801 CD07
         |    |--P. c. var. commune SK02
         |    |--P. c. var. perigoniale (Michx.) Hampe 1839 Sk02
         |    `--P. c. var. trichodes SK02
         |--P. croceum Hampe 1853 SK02
         |--P. elongatum D03b
         |--P. juniperinum Hedw. 1801 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. lycopodioides Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. norvegicum SK02
         |--P. novae-hollandiae Jaeger 1875 [incl. P. densifolium (preoc.)] SK02
         |--P. obliquirostre Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. patagonicum D03b
         |--P. piliferum Hedw. 1801 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. recurvipilum Müll.Hal. 1897 SK02
         |--P. spegazzinii D03b
         |--P. strictum SK02
         |--P. trachynotum D03b
         `--P. uliginosum VHJ03

Nomina nuda: Pogonatum australasicum f. minor Hampe & Geh. 1881 SK02
             Polytrichadelphus stricticaulis Dusén 1903 D03b

Atrichum androgynum (Müll.Hal.) Jaeger 1875 [incl. Catharinea leptocylindrica, A. leptocylindricum, Polytrichum ligulatum, A. ligulatum, Catharinea ligulata, C. minuta, Atrichum minutum, Oligotrichum minutum, Catharinea muelleri, Atrichum muelleri (preoc.), Polytrichum angustatum var. polysetum, A. angustatum var. polysetum (nom. inv.), Catharinea pusilla, A. pusillum, C. semilamellosa, A. semilamellosum, C. sideroloma, A. sideroloma] SK02

Dawsonia superba var. pulchra Zanten 1972 [incl. D. intermedia, Polytrichum longifolium (nom. rej.), D. longifolia (Bruch & Schimp.) Zanten 1977 (nom. rej.)] SK02

Notoligotrichum australe (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum australe non P. juniperinum var. australe Müll.Hal. 1868, Psilopilum australe (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860] SK02

Notoligotrichum crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum crispulum, Catharinea crispula, Psilopilum crispulum (Hooker & Wilson) Mitt. 1860] SK02

Pogonatum neesii (Müll.Hal.) Dozy 1856 [incl. Polytrichum australasicum, Pog. australasicum, Pog. baileyi (nom. inv.), Polytrichum brachypodium, Pog. brachypodium (Müll.Hal.) Watts & Whitel. 1902, Pol. camarae, Pog. camarae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1897, Pol. gippslandiae, Pog. gippslandiae (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900, Pol. nanocarpum, Pog. nanocarpum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1900] SK02

Polytrichadelphus magellanicus (Hedw.) Mitt. 1859 [=Polytrichum magellanicum; incl. Catharinea arnoldii, Oligotrichum arnoldii, Polytrichadelphus arnoldii, Catharinea australasica, Oligotrichum australasicum, Polytrichadelphus australasicus, Polytrichum innovans (nom. inv.), Catharinea innovans, Oligotrichum innovans, Polytrichadelphus innovans, Catharinea lagenacea, Polytrichadelphus lagenaceus, C. prolificans, Polytrichadelphus prolificans] SK02

Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) Smith 1971 [=Polytrichum alpinum, Pogonatum alpinum, Pog. austroalpinum, Polytrichum austroalpinum (nom. inv.), Polytrichum pseudoalpinum, Pogonatum pseudoalpinum] SK02

Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. 1801 [incl. P. juniperinum var. australe Müll.Hal. 1868, P. beccarii, P. cypellomitrium, P. juniperifolium, P. longipilum, P. maoriae, P. nodicoma, P. ryparomitrium, P. tasmaniae, P. tasmanicum (l. c.), P. tysdalei, P. tisdallii (l. c.)] SK02

Polytrichum piliferum Hedw. 1801 [incl. P. pilosum (nom. illeg.), P. sullivanii, Eupolytrichum sullivanii (nom. inv.)] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A49] Allison, K. W. 1949. Description of a new species with notes and localities for some Otago and Southland mosses. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 278-283.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D03a] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D03b] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supp. no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355-360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229-236.

Notoungulata

Skull and reproduction of head of Notopithecus, from here.


Belongs within: Panameriungulata?.

The Notoungulata were a diverse group of herbivorous mammals found in South America from the Palaeocene to the Pleistocene. Various forms might be described as convergent on Northern Hemisphere rhinos, pigs, rabbits or hyraxes. The relations of notoungulates within other mammals remain poorly established; also subject to much debate is whether the Arctostylopida from the Palaeocene and Eocene of Asia and North America are members of this otherwise entirely South American group.

Characters (from Rose 2006): Early forms with dental formula of 3.1.4.3/3.1.4.3; teeth usually closely spaced, diastema absent; cheek teeth lophodont: upper molars with strong, straight ectoloph, oblique protoloph and more transverse metaloph; tendency to develop extra crests running toward centre of upper molar, including 'crochet' extending anterobuccally from metaloph; lower molars with two main crescentic crests, the metalophid and hypolophid, with shorter transverse entolophid derived from entoconid; paraconid typically absent; paracristid short; ectocingulum usually weak or absent on both upper and lower teeth. Skull with postorbital bar absent, zygomatic arch arising high on back of skull. Ear region with tympanic cavity connected to large epitympanic sinus in squamosal, often also to hypotympanic sinus below tympanic cavity; inflated ectotympanic bulla surrounding tympanic cavity, extending laterally as external auditory tube with ventral crest; fossa present behind bulla for projection of the hyoid. Feet mesaxonic; astragalus with moderately long constricted neck, roughly hemispherical head, medial projection on body, prominent dorsal foramen, posterior sulcus, partly confluent sustentacular and navicular facets; astragalar trochlea slightly grooved with high lateral rim; calcaneal peroneal tubercle distally situated.

<==Notoungulata
    |  i. s.: Simpsonotus MC00
    |         Notostylops MC00
    |           |--N. brachycephalus S32
    |           `--N. escaridus S32
    |--Oldfieldthomasia [Acoelodidae] S32
    |    `--O. debilitata [=Acoelodus debilitatus] S32
    |--Notopithecus [Notopithecidae] S32
    |    `--N. adapinus S32
    `--Actostylopidae [Actostylopida] HC97
         |--Asiostylopinae HC97
         |    |--Asiostylops HC97
         |    `--Bothriostylops Zheng & Huang 1986 HC97
         |         |--B. notios HC97
         |         `--B. progressus (Tang & Yan 1976) HC97
         `--Actostylopinae HC97
              |--Allostylops periconotus HC97
              |--Actostylops HC97
              `--Paleostylops HC97
                   |--P. iturus HC97
                   `--P. macrodon HC97


==References==

[HC97] Huang X. & Chen L. 1997. Mammalian remains from the Late Paleocene of Guichi, Anhui. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 49-67.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): Implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47-150.

Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. JHU Press.

[S32] Simpson, G. G. 1932. Skulls and brains of some mammals from the Notostylops beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates 578: 1-11.

Phenacodontidae

Reconstruction of Phenacodus by Heinrich Harder.


Belongs within: Cetferungulata.

The Phenacodontidae are a family of herbivorous cursorial mammals from the Palaeocene and Eocene of North America and Europe. Size estimates for phenacodontids vary from about three or four kilograms for the smaller Ectocion and Copecion species, to well over fifty kilos for the larger Phenacodus species (Thewissen 1990), or about the size of a cat to that of a small sheep.

Characters (from Thewissen 1990): Teeth bunodont to bunolophodont. P4 with talonid basin and subequal protoconid and metaconid. Paraconid of lower molars absent or small. P3 with small protocone, P4 with paracone, metacone, and protocone. M1-2 with hypocone and often with mesostyle. Dental formula 3.1.4.3 / 3.1.4.3. Humerus with weak deltopectoral crest and supracondylar foramen. Ulna strong with anterior process distally. Five digits in hand and foot. Femur with third trochanter. Fibula complete. Astragalus with convex head.

<==Phenacodontidae
    |  i. s.: Copecion brachypternus MC00
    |         Gidleyina Simpson 1935 S35b
    |           |--*G. montanensis Gidley in Simpson 1935 [=Ectocion montanensis, Euprotogonia montanensis] S35b
    |           `--G. silberlingi Gidley in Simpson 1935 [=Ectocion silberlingi, Euprotogonia silberlingi] S35b
    |         Lophocion HD04
    |--Tetraclaenodon MC00
    |    |--T. pliciferus S35b
    |    |--T. puercensis PMF88 [=Euprotogonia puercensis PMF88]
    |    |--T. superior Simpson 1935 S35b
    |    `--T. symbolicus Gidley in Simpson 1935 S35b
    `--+--+--Ectocion osbornianus PMF88, MC00
       |  `--Meniscotherium Cope 1874 PMF88, C76
       |       |--M. chamense Cope 1874 C76
       |       `--M. terraerubrae M94
       `--Phenacodus Cope 1873 PMF88, C76
            |--P. copei PMF88
            |--P. gidleyi S35a
            |--P. grangeri MC00
            |--P. matthewi S35a
            |--P. omnivorus Cope 1874 C76
            |--P. primaevus Cope 1873 C76
            |--P. sulcatus Cope 1874 C76
            `--P. wortmani ANG03

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1-2): 131-194.

[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[HD04] Hooker, J. J. & D. Dashzeveg. 2004. The origin of chalicotheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Palaeontology 47 (6): 1363-1386.

[M94] MacPhee, R. D. E. 1994. Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220: 1-214.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): Implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47-150.

[PMF88] Prothero, D. R., E. M. Manning & M. Fischer. 1988. The phylogeny of the ungulates. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 2. Mammals (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 201-234. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[S35a] Simpson, G. G. 1935a. The Tiffany fauna, Upper Paleocene. I.–Multituberculata, Marsupialia, Insectivora, and ?Chiroptera. American Museum Novitates 795: 1-19.

[S35b] Simpson, G. G. 1935b. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221-244.

Thewissen, J. G. M. 1990. Evolution of Paleocene and Eocene Phenacodontidae (Mammalia, Condylarthra). Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology 29: 1-107.

Hypnales

Sanionia uncinata, photographed by Algirdas.

Belongs within: Bryidae.
Contains: Ectropothecium, Vesicularia, Isopterygium, Trachylomataceae, Hylocomiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Plagiotheciaceae, Entodontaceae, Sematophyllaceae, Cryphaeaceae, Pterobryaceae, Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Calliergonaceae, Hypnum, Amblystegiaceae, Leskeaceae, Thuidiaceae, Brachytheciaceae.

The Hypnales are an enormous order of over 4,000 species, over half the pleurocarpous mosses. Members of the order are divided between a large number of families, but the boundaries between many of the families are poorly defined and still being revised. In particular, the previously recognised family Hypnaceae has been indicated by molecular analyses to be widely polyphyletic. Species of the genus Sanionia have a noteworthy distribution, being found in the Arctic and Antarctic but not in the intervening tropics.

Characters (from Smith & Smith 2004): Pleurocarpous. Very slender to robust plants. Primary stems usually creeping, secondary stems procumbent to erect, branching irregular to pinnate or dendroid. Paraphyllia and/or pseudoparaphyllia present or absent. Leaves spirally arranged or complanate, linear-lanceolate to more or less orbicular, apices rounded to longly acuminate; branch leaves similar to and smaller than stem leaves or differing in shape; costa long or short, single, double or absent; cells short to linear-vermicular, usually smooth, alar cells often differentiated. Setae long, smooth or papillose; capsules erect to horizontal, ovoid to cylindrical; lid convex to highly rostrate or subulate; peristome double, perfect or variously reduced, exostome teeth papillose, not furrowed, endostome with or without tall basal membrane, cilia present or absent; calyptrae naked. Chromosome number frequently x = 10 + m or 11.

<==Hypnales [Hypnaceae]
    |--Neckerineae VH02
    |    |--Neckeraceae SK02
    |    `--Leptodontaceae SK02
    |         |--Leptodon Mohr 1803 FHH01, SK02
    |         |    |--L. longisetus FHH01
    |         |    `--L. smithii (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1803 [incl. L. australis] SK02
    |         `--Forsstroemia Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |              |--F. producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |              `--F. trichomitra (Hedw.) Lindb. 1863 SK02
    |                   |--F. t. ssp. trichomitra SK02
    |                   `--F. t. ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--+--Conardia compacta VH02
       `--+--+--+--Caribaeohypnum polypterum VH02
          |  |  `--Ptilium cristacastrensis VH02
          |  `--+--Calliergonella Loeske 1911 VH02, SK02
          |     |    |--C. cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 (see below for synonymy) SK02
          |     |    `--C. lindbergii VH02
          |     `--Sanionia Loeske 1907 VH02, SK02
          |          `--S. uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 (see below for synonymy) SK02
          |               |--S. u. ssp. uncinata D03
          |               `--‘Hypnum uncinatum’ ssp. symmetricum [=Amblystegium uncinatum var. symmetricum] D03
          `--+--+--Calliergonaceae VH02
             |  `--+--Hypnum VH02
             |     `--+--‘Hygrohypnum’ montanum VH02
             |        `--Platydictya jungermannioides VH02
             `--+--+--Amblystegiaceae VH02
                |  `--+--+--+--Campylophyllum halleri VH02
                |     |  |  `--‘Hygrohypnum’ smithii VH02
                |     |  `--Tomentypnum VH02
                |     |       |--T. falcifolium VH02
                |     |       `--T. nitens VH02
                |     `--+--+--Leskeaceae VH02
                |        |  `--Thuidiaceae VH02
                |        `--Rhytidiaceae N02
                |             |--Rhytidium rugosum VH02
                |             `--Gollania N02
                |                  |--G. clarescens N02
                |                  `--G. splendens F01
                `--+--+--Brachytheciaceae VH02
                   |  `--Donrichardsia [Donrichardsiaceae] VH02
                   |       `--D. macroneuron VH02
                   `--+--Platygyrium repens VH02
                      `--Anomodontaceae SK02
                           |--Haplohymenium Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
                           |--Herpetineuron (Müll.Hal.) Cardot 1905 SK02
                           |    `--H. toccoae (Sull. & Lesq.) Cardot 1905 SK02
                           `--Anomodon Hooker & Taylor 1818 SK02
                                |--A. attenuatus VH02
                                |--A. pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 (see below for synonymy) SK02
                                |--A. rostratus J87
                                |--A. rugelli N02
                                `--A. thraustus N02

Hypnales incertae sedis:
  Ectropothecium SK02
  Vesicularia SK02
  Isopterygium SK02
  Trachylomataceae SK02
  Hylocomiaceae SK02
  Trachyphyllum Gepp 1901 [Pterigynandraceae] SK02
    `--T. inflexum (Harv.) Gepp 1901 [incl. Leptohymenium papuanum, T. papuanum] SK02
  Stereophyllaceae SK02
    |--Euglossophyllum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1896 SK02
    `--Stereophyllum Mitt. 1859 SK02
         |--S. fuegianum D03
         |--S. radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. tavoyense (Hooker) Jaeger 1879 [=Hypnum tavoyense Hooker 1836] SG07
         `--S. wightii (Mitt.) Jaeger 1980 [=Hypnum wightii Mitt. 1859] SG07
  Myriniaceae SK02
    |--Helicodontium (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    |    `--H. capillare (Hedw.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    `--Macgregorella Bartram 1939 SK02
         `--M. indica (Broth.) Buck 1980 [=Austinia brotheri, A. luzonensis (n. n.)] SK02
  Meteoriaceae SK02
  Plagiotheciaceae SK02
  Entodontaceae SK02
  Climacium Weber & Mohr 1804 [Climaciaceae] SK02
    |--C. americanum VHJ03
    |--C. dendroides (Hedw.) Weber & Mohr 1804 SK02
    `--C. kindbergii VHJ03
  Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |--C. malacodes J87
    `--C. pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Trachythecium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. verrucosum (Jaeger) Fleischer 1923 [=Ectropothecium verrucosum] SK02
  Chaetomitrium Dozy & Molk. 1846 [Symphyodontaceae] SK02
    `--C. tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sematophyllaceae SK02
  Myuriaceae SK02
    |--Myurium Schimp. 1860 SK02
    `--Oedicladium Mitt. 1868 SK02
         `--O. rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 (see below for synonymy) SK02
              |--O. r. ssp. rufescens SK02
              `--‘Myurium’ r. ssp. purpuratum (Mitt.) Maschke 1976 SK02
  Cryphaeaceae SK02
  Pterobryaceae SK02
  Orthorrhynchium Reichardt 1868 [Orthorrhyngiaceae] SK02
    `--O. elegans (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1868 [=Phyllogonium elegans] SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. elegans SK02
         |--O. e. ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--O. e. ssp. nietneri (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 SK02
  Lepyrodon Hampe 1865 [Lepyrodontaceae] SK02
    |--L. australis Hampe & Broth. 1906 SK02
    |--L. implexus D03
    |--L. lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--L. pseudolagurus Allen 1999 SK02
  Echinodium Jur. 1866 [Echinodiaceae] SK02
    |--E. hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    `--E. umbrosum (Mitt.) Jaeger 1878 [incl. E. parvulum] SK02
  Lembophyllaceae SK02
  Sorapilla Spruce & Mitt. 1869 [Sorapillaceae] SK02
    `--S. papuana Broth. & Geh. 1900 SK02
  Taxiphyllum Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--T. taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 (see below for synonymy) SK02
  Sciaromium D03
    |--S. confluens D03
    |--S. depastum Dusén 1903 D03
    `--S. gracile Dusén 1903 D03
  Rigodium D03
    |--R. nano-fasciculatum D03
    |--R. tamarix D03
    `--R. toxarion D03
  Mittenothamnium reptans J87
  Chrysohypnum diminutivum J87
  Herzogiella cylindricarpa J87

Nomina invalida: Anomodon brevissimus Broth. ex Bailey 1890 SK02
                 Rigodium carnosulum Dusén 1903 D03
                 Rigodium pseudo-thuidium Dusén 1903 D03

Anomodon pseudotristis (Müll.Hal.) Kindb. 1888 [=Haplohymenium pseudotriste (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1907; incl. A. brevinervis, H. brevinerve] SK02

Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske 1911 [=Acrocladium cuspidatum, Calliergon cuspidatum; incl. Hypnum flexile (nom. illeg.)] SK02

Chaetomitrium tahitense (Sull.) Mitt. 1873 [incl. C. tahitense var. deplanchei (Besch.) Wijk & Margad. 1959, C. geheebii, C. nematosum] SK02

Ctenidium pubescens (Hooker & Wilson) Broth. 1908 [incl. Hyocomium pilosum (n. n.), Hypnum pilosum (nom. inv.)] SK02

Echinodium hispidum (Hooker & Wilson) Reichardt 1870 [=Hypnum hispidum, Leskea hispida, Sciaromium hispidum; incl. Echinodium arboreum, S. arboreum] SK02

Forsstroemia producta (Hornsch.) Paris 1896 [incl. Dusenia subproducta, F. subproducta (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1905, Lasia subproducta (n. n.)] SK02

Forsstroemia trichomitra ssp. australis (Müll.Hal.) Stark 1987 [=Lasia australis, Dusenia australis, Forsstroemia australis (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895; incl. Lasia australis var. stricta, F. australis var. stricta (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1895] SK02

Lepyrodon lagurus (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [=Leucodon lagurus, Hypnum lagurum Menzies ex Hooker 1819 (nom. inv.), Neckera lagura, Stereodon lagurus] SK02

Oedicladium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Mitt. 1868 [=Myurium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleischer 1908] SK02

Orthorrhynchium elegans ssp. cymbifolioides (Müll.Hal.) Lin 1983 [=Acroceratium cymbifolioides (n. n.), Phyllogonium cymbifolioides; incl. Orthorrhynchium thorpeanum (n. n.)] SK02

Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske 1907 [=Hypnum uncinatum, Amblystegium uncinatum, Drepanocladus uncinatus (Hedw.) Warnst. 1903; incl. Hypnum contiguum Hooker & Wilson 1959 (preoc.), H. pseudouncinatum] SK02

Stereophyllum radiculosum (Hooker) Mitt. 1869 [incl. Euglossophyllum daemeli Müll.Hal. 1922 (n. n.), S. daemeli Fleischer 1922 (n. n.)] SK02

Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 [=Isopterygium taxirameum; incl. I. robustum, Taxiphyllum robustum, I. teysmannii] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

[F01] Furuki, T. 2001. Lethocolea naruto-toganensis, a new hepatic from swamps of Japan. Bryologist 104 (2): 306-309.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K. & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 155-164.

Smith, A. J. E., & R. Smith. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[VH02] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs, C. J. Cox & A. J. Shaw. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (1): 1-21.

[VHJ03] Vanderpoorten, A., L. Hedenäs & A.-L. Jacquemart. 2003. Differentiation in DNA fingerprinting and morphology among species of the pleurocarpous moss genus, Rhytidiadelphus (Hylocomiaceae). Taxon 52: 229-236.

Plagiotheciaceae

Plagiothecium denticulatum, photographed by Bob Klips.


Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Plagiotheciaceae are a family of mosses found worldwide, species of which grow in loose to dense mats or tufts. Though currently more diverse in the northern temperate zone, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the family may have originated in the Southern Hemisphere (Pedersen & Hedenäs 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Pedersen & Hedenäs 2002): Pseudoparaphyllia absent; rhizoids absent from stem and lowermost abaxial costa; axillary rhizoids purplish and granular-papillose; exostomes with whitish yellow basal part.

<==Plagiotheciaceae [Stereodontaceae]
    |--Catagonium Müll.Hal. 1908 SK02
    |    `--C. nitens (Brid.) Cardot 1915 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Stereodon D03
    |    |--S. lechleri D03
    |    |--S. nitidus D03
    |    `--S. ptychocarpon [=Ptychomnion ptychocarpon, Stereodon ptychomnium (l. c.)] SK02
    |--Acrocladium Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |--A. auriculatum [incl. Hypnum auriculatum, Acroceratium auriculatum, Stereodon auriculatus] SK02
    |    |--A. chlamydophyllum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. morenoi D03
    |    `--A. trichocladium Bosw. 1892 SK02
    `--Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. 1851 SK02
         |--P. cavifolium N02
         |--P. denticulatum (Hedw.) Schimp. 1852 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--P. fuegianum D03
         |--P. lamprostachys (Hampe) Jaeger 1878 [=Hypnum lamprostachys; incl. P. novae-seelandiae Broth. 1916] SK02
         |--P. leptoplumosum Dusén 1903 D03
         |--P. lucidulum D03
         |--P. lucidum (Hooker & Wilson) Paris 1897 SK02
         |--P. magellanicum D03
         |--P. neckeroideum N02
         `--P. pulchellum D03

Nomen nudum: Plagiothecium amblyostomum Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 SK02
             Stereodon australis Hooker & Wilson ex Muell. 1880 SK02
             Stereodon cupressiformis f. robusta Rodway 1914 SK02
             Stereodon wattsii Broth. ex Watts 1899 SK02

Acrocladium chlamydophyllum (Hooker & Wilson) Müll.Hal. & Broth. 1900 [=Hypnum chlamydophyllum, Coelidium chlamydophyllum, Lembophyllum chlamydophyllum] SK02

Catagonium nitens (Brid.) Cardot 1915 [incl. Phyllogonium elegans var. acuminatum (nom. inv.), Orthorrhynchium hampeanum, Cryptogonium hampeanum, Phyllogonium hampeanum, Orthorrhynchium hampei (n. n.), Hypnum politum, Acroceratium politum, Acrocladium politum, Catagonium politum] SK02

Plagiothecium denticulatum
(Hedw.) Schimp. 1852 [=Hypnum denticulatum; incl. P. donnianum, Stereodon donnianus, P. denticulatum var. obtusifolium] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903b. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418-433.

Pedersen, N., & L. Hedenäs. 2002. Phylogeny of the Plagiotheciaceae based on molecular and morphological evidence. Bryologist 105 (3): 310-324.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Anostostomatidae

Sugarcane monster Cooloola ziljan, copyright Eric Zillmann.


Belongs within: Ensifera.
Contains: Anostostomatinae, Deinacridinae.

The king crickets and ground wetas of the Anostostomatidae are large orthopterans with a largely Gondwanan distribution, being found in South America, southern Africa, Australasia and south-east Asia. The 'monsters' of the genus Cooloola are particularly unusual digging orthopterans found in Queensland, Australia, that have shortened antennae unlike those of any other member of the group.

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Tarsi with four segments, pulvilli at sole not widened, first segment with two pulvilli; tympana developed or lost; outer side of hind femur may have distinct chevron ridges. Abdominal part of femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus (if present) only irregularly denticulated or with small ridges; male abdominal apex with tenth tergite divided into lateral halves or undivided, with pair of hooked processes, paraproct usually (not always) with specialised process; ovipositor (if well-developed) with lower part of upper valvae inserted in furrow on lower valvae.

<==Anostostomatidae
    |--Zeuneropterinae Go01
    |    |--Zeuneroptera Sharov 1968 Go01
    |    |    `--Z. scotica Go01
    |    `--Albertoilus Kevan & Wighton 1981 Go01
    |         `--A. cervirufi Go01
    `--+--+--Leiomelus [Leiomelinae] Go01
       |  `--Cratomelus Blanchard 1851 [Cratomelinae] A01
       |       `--*C. armatus Blanchard 1851 A01
       |--Anabropsinae [Anabropsini] Go01
       |    |--Paterdecolyus Go01
       |    |--Pteranabropsis carli Go01
       |    |--Apteranabropsis Go01
       |    |--Brachyporus Go01
       |    |--Papuaistus Go01
       |    |--Anabropsis Go01
       |    `--Exogryllacris Willemse 1962 MF01
       |         `--*E. ornata Willemse 1962 MF01
       `--+--Cooloola [Cooloolidae, Cooloolinae] Go01
          |    |--C. dingo R96
          |    |--C. propator R96
          |    `--C. ziljan Go01
          `--+--Lezina [Lezininae] Go01
             |    `--L. mutica Go01
             `--+--Anostostomatinae Go01
                |--Deinacridinae Go01
                `--Lutosinae [Lutosini] Go01
                     |--Apotetamenus Go01
                     |--Lutosa marginalis Go01
                     |--Hypocophoides lepismoides (Walker 1871) [=Onosandrus lepismoides] MF01
                     `--Licodia Go01
                          |--L. cerberus FD01
                          |--L. grandis FD01
                          `--L. pallipes FD01

Anostostomatidae incertae sedis:
  Glaphyrosoma [Glaphyrosomatini] W01
  Transaevum Johns 1997 MF01
    `--*T. laudatum Johns 1997 MF01
  Gryllacropsis Go01
  Coccinellomima Go01
  Anisoura nicobarica Ander 1938 [incl. Hemiandrus monstrosus Salmon 1950] Gi01
  Hypocophus Go01
  Dolichochaeta Go01
  Aistus Go01
    |--*A. gracilis [incl. A. gracilis var. cingulifer Griffini 1914] G14
    |--A. rouxi Griffini 1914 G14
    `--A. sarasini Griffini 1914 G14
  Penthoplophora Go01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A01] Angulo, A. O. 2001. Anatomy, development and behaviour of the Chilean red cricket, Cratomelus armatus Bl. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 205-222. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 179-204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Gi01] Gibbs, G. W. 2001. Habitats and biogeography of New Zealand’s deinacridine and tusked weta species. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 35-55. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Go01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[G14] Griffini, A. 1914. Stenopelmatidae della Nuova-Caledonia. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 283-311. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[MF01] Monteith, G. B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Australian king crickets: Distribution, habitats and biology (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 79-94. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. Communication and reproductive behaviour in Noth American Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus) (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 351-375. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).