Rufous nightjar Antrostomus rufus, photographed by René Lortie.

Belongs within: Caprimulgidae.

Sclater (1866a) used the name 'Caprimulginae setirostres' for those nightjars in which the upper mandible has an array of strong bristles arising from the edge of the base and covering the gape.

    |  i. s.: Macrodipteryx Scl66a
    |           |--M. longipennis FP64
    |           `--M. vexillarius Ma02
    |         Scotornis Swainson 1837 Scl66a, B94 [Scotornithinae]
    |           `--S. climacurus S55
    |                |--S. c. climacurus S55
    |                `--S. c. clarus S55
    |         Caprimulgus Linnaeus 1758 Scl66a, Ml02
    |           |--C. aegyptius S05
    |           |--C. aequicaudatus Scl66b
    |           |--C. affinis VP89
    |           |--C. carolinensis Ma02 [=Antrostomus carolinensis Scl66a]
    |           |--C. europaeus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. C. capeki Jánossy 1977, C. europaeus fossilis Čapek 1917] Ml02
    |           |--C. indicus VP89
    |           |--C. longipennis Sch66
    |           |--C. longirostris HK08 [=Antrostomus longirostris Scl66a, Stenopsis longirostris Scl66a]
    |           |--C. macrurus J06
    |           |    |--C. m. macrurus J06
    |           |    `--C. m. schlegelii J06
    |           |--C. madagascariensis S55
    |           |--C. mahrattensis D02
    |           |--C. monticolus S55
    |           |--C. noctitherus SWK87
    |           |--C. nubicus Lichtenstein 1823 [incl. C. infuscatus Cretzschmar 1827] S05
    |           |--C. pectoralis Ma02
    |           |--C. ridgwayi ZJM03
    |           |--C. ruficollis RN72
    |           `--C. stictomus Scl66a
    |--Terricolae Scl66a
    |    |--Siphonorhis americanus [=Caprimulgus americanus] Scl66a
    |    |    |--S. a. americanus FP64
    |    |    `--S. a. brewsteri FP64
    |    `--Nyctidromus Gould 1838 Scl66a, B94 [Nyctidrominae]
    |         `--N. albicollis (see below for synonymy) Scl66a
    |              |--N. a. albicollis FS55
    |              `--N. a. intercedens FS55
    `--Aereae Scl66a
         |--Heleothreptus anomalus (Gould 1837) [=Amblypterus anomalus, Eleothreptus anomalus] Scl66a
         |--Stenopsis Scl66a
         |    |--S. bifasciata Scl66b (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--S. candicans [=Caprimulgus candicans; incl. C. leucurus] Scl66b
         |    |--S. cayanensis Scl66b [=Caprimulgus cayanensis Scl66a; incl. C. cayanus Scl66a, C. leopetes Scl66a]
         |    |--S. langsdorfi Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 Scl66b
         |    |--S. platura Pelzeln in Sclater 1866 [=Caprimulgus platurus] Scl66b
         |    `--S. ruficervix Sclater 1866 Scl66a
         |--Hydropsalis Scl66a
         |    |--H. (Hydropsalis) Scl66a
         |    |    |--H. (H.) furcifera [=Caprimulgus furcifer] Scl66a
         |    |    |--H. (H.) pallescens von Pelzeln 1865 Scl66a
         |    |    `--H. (H.) torquata (see below for synonymy) Scl66a
         |    |--H. (Diplopsalis) Scl66a
         |    |    |--H. (D.) schomburgki Scl66a
         |    |    `--H. (D.) trifurcata [incl. H. climacocerca] Scl66a
         |    `--H. (Macropsalis Sclater 1866) Scl66a
         |         |--H. (M.) forcipata (see below for synonymy) Scl66a
         |         |--H. (M.) lyra Scl66a
         |         |--H. (M.) segmentata Cassin 1849 Scl66a
         |         `--H. (M.) ypanemae von Pelzeln 1865 Scl66a
         `--Antrostomus Scl66a
              |--A. cubanensis Lawrence 1860 Scl66b
              |--A. macromystax [=Caprimulgus macromystax] Scl66a
              |--A. maculicaudus [=Stenopsis maculicaudus] Scl66b
              |--A. nigrescens [=Caprimulgus nigrescens, Stenopsis nigrescens] Scl66a
              |--A. nuttalli [=Caprimulgus nuttalli] Scl66a
              |--A. ocellatus (see below for synonymy) Scl66a
              |--A. ornatus Sclater 1866 Scl66b
              |--A. parvulus (Gould 1837) [=Caprimulgus parvulus; incl. C. mixtus] Scl66a
              |--A. rufus Scl66b [=Caprimulgus rufus Scl66a; incl. Ca. cortopao Scl66a]
              |--A. rutilus Scl66b
              |--A. sericeocaudatus Scl66b
              `--A. vociferus Scl66b [=Caprimulgus vociferus Scl66a]

Antrostomus ocellatus [=Caprimulgus ocellatus; incl. C. brasilianus, C. brasiliensis, C. lunulatus Natt. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.)] Scl66a

Hydropsalis (Hydropsalis) torquata [=Caprimulgus torquatus; incl. H. azarae Wagl. 1883, Psalurus macropterus, Caprimulgus psalurus, Hydropsalis psalurus] Scl66a

Hydropsalis (Macropsalis) forcipata [=Caprimulgus forcipatus; incl. H. limbatus, Caprimulgus megalurus Licht. in Sclater 1866 (n. n.)] Scl66a

Nyctidromus albicollis [=Caprimulgus albicollis; incl. N. affinis, N. americanus Cassin 1851, N. derbyanus, N. grallarius, Caprimulgus guianensis, N. guianensis] Scl66a

Stenopsis bifasciata Scl66b [=Caprimulgus bifasciatus Scl66a; incl. C. conterminus Scl66a, C. decussatus Scl66a]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[D02] Devare, M. N. 2002. Breeding record of the Sykes's nightjar Caprimulgus mahrattensis (Sykes) in Harike, Punjab, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 528-529.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763-1768.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[Ma02] Mayr, G. 2002. Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). Journal für Ornithologie 143: 82-97.

[Ml02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[Scl66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Notes upon the American Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 123-145.

[Scl66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Additional notes on the Caprimulgidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 581-590.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S55] Steinbacher, J. 1955. Über die Schwanzmauser der Eulen (Strigidae) und Nachtschwalben (Caprimulgidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 235-240.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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