American woodcock Scolopax minor, photographed by guizmo_68.

Belongs within: Scolopacoidea.

The Scolopacinae includes the woodcocks (Scolopax), stout-bodied woodbirds of Eurasia and North America. Lowe (1915) also suggested that the New Zealand subantarctic snipes (Coenocorypha) are close relatives of Scolopax, due to their having wide, flattened and divaricate maxillary processes; the quadratojugal bars and the outer processes of the nasals both being flattened and about equal in length, and the outer nasal processes sloping gently forwards to join the quadratojugal bars at an acute angle; the presence of the squamosal plane (a flat, somewhat quadrilateral and slightly roughened plane immediately posterior to the tympanic cavity); palatal plates comparatively short and wide, with thickened inner laminae ending at their upper and anterior angle in a forward-projecting spur; pterygoid processes comparatively long; comparatively thick, wide and flat nasals; and comparatively massive maxillary processes of premaxillae.

    |--Coenocorypha HWT01
    |    |--C. aucklandica (Gray 1845) WH02
    |    |--C. barrierensis Oliver 1955 WH02 [=C. aucklandica barrierensis HR96]
    |    |--C. chathamica (Forbes 1893) [=Gallinago chathamica] WH02
    |    |--C. huegeli (Tristram 1893) WH02 [=C. aucklandica huegeli R85]
    |    |--C. iredalei Rothschild 1921 WH02 [=C. aucklandica iredalei R85]
    |    |--C. meinertzhageni Rothschild 1927 WH02 [=C. aucklandica meinertzhagenae R85]
    |    `--C. pusilla (Buller 1869) WH02 [=C. aucklandica pusilla R85]
    `--Scolopax Linnaeus 1758 M02
         |--S. anthonyi SWK87
         |--S. baranensis Jánossy 1979 M02
         |--S. carmesinae Seguí 1999 M02
         |--S. celebensis SU93
         |--S. minor JVHN90
         |--S. mira Hartert 1916 I92
         |--S. rochussenii SU93
         |--S. rusticola Linnaeus 1758 [incl. S. rusticola magnus Potapova 1990] M02
         `--S. saturata SU93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173-180.

Lowe, P. R. 1915. Studies on the Charadriiformes.—II. On the osteology of the Chatham Island snipe (Coenocorypha pusilla Buller). Ibis, tenth series 3: 690-716.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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