Greater flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, photographed by Angel Pulido Domínguez.

Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Phoenicopteriformes include the flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) and their fossil relatives. Flamingos have exceedingly long necks and legs, a distinctively-shaped down-curved bill, and front toes joined by full webs while the hind toe is elevated or absent (Austin 1961). The Oligocene and Miocene Palaelodus is united with the flamingos by its deep mandibular rami, but retained a straight bill (Mayr 2005). Earlier fossil taxa have also been allied to the Phoenicopteriformes, but their relationship is less well supported.

    |  i. s.: Torotigidae FP64
    |           |--Gallornis straeleni FP64
    |           |--Parascaniornis stensioei FP64
    |           `--Torotix clemensi FP64
    |         ‘Agnopterus’ turgaiensis Tugarinov 1940 [incl. Cygnopterus lambrechti Kuročkin 1968] M02
    |--Scaniornis Dames 1890 M02 [Scaniornithidae FP64]
    |    `--*S. lundgreni Dames 1890 M02
    `--+--Palaelodus Milne-Edwards 1863 M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*P. ambiguus Milne-Edwards 1863 (see below for synonymy) M02
       |    |--*Megapaloelodus’ connectens Miller 1944 M02
       |    `--P. goliath Milne-Edwards 1868 [=Paloelodus (l. c.) goliath, Megapaloelodus goliath] M02
       `--Phoenicopteridae M05
            |--Phoeniconaias minor FP64
            |--Kashinia Harrison & Walker 1979 [=Tenuicrus Harrison & Walker 1976 non Womersley 1940] M02
            |    `--*K. magna (Harrison & Walker 1976) [=*Tenuicrus magnum] M02
            |--Phoenicoparrus FP64
            |    |--P. andinus FP64
            |    `--P. jamesi FP64
            |--Elornis Milne-Edwards 1868 M05, M02 [=Helornis Lydekker 1891 M02]
            |    |--*E. littoralis Milne-Edwards 1868 (see below for synonymy) M02
            |    |--E. anglicus Lydekker 1891 [=Helornis anglicus] M02
            |    `--E. grandis Milne-Edwards 1869 M02
            `--Phoenicopterus Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy) M02
                 |--P. chilensis FP64
                 |--P. croizeti Gervais 1852 [=*Gervaisia croiseti (l. c.), *Harrisonavis croizeti] M02
                 |--P. floridanus FP64
                 |--P. minor SU93
                 `--P. ruber PJ02
                      |--P. r. ruber PJ02
                      `--P. r. roseus PJ02

*Elornis littoralis Milne-Edwards 1868 [=*Helornis littoralis; incl. E. antiquus Aymard 1856 (nom. inv.)] M02

Palaelodus Milne-Edwards 1863 M02 [=Paloelodus (l. c.) M02; incl. Megapaloelodus Miller 1944 M02, Probalearica Lambrecht 1933 M02; Palaelodidae M05, Palaeolontidae]

*Palaelodus ambiguus Milne-Edwards 1863 [incl. Pala. crassipes Milne-Edwards 1863, Pala. gracilipes Milne-Edwards 1863, Paloelodus (l. c.) minutus Milne-Edwards 1868, Grus miocenicus Grigorescu & Kessler 1977, G. problematica Milne-Edwards 1871, *Probalearica problematica] M02

Phoenicopterus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Gervaisia Harrison & Walker 1976 nec Bonaparte 1854 nec Waga 1858 nec Robineau-Desvoidy, Harrisonavis Kašin 1978] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[PJ02] Palma, R. L., A. R. Johnson, F. Cezilly, F. Thomas & F. Renard. 2002. Diversity and distribution of feather lice on greater flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) in the Camargue, sothern France. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 87-89.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

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