Chrysomelidae

Coconut leaf miner Promecotheca cumingii, from here.

Belongs within: Phytophaga.
Contains: Monolepta, Halticinae, Cryptocephalini, Clytrini.

The Chrysomelidae, the leaf beetles, are an extremely diverse family of beetles that mostly feed on living plant tissue. Members of the subfamilies Bruchinae and many Galerucinae have enlarged hind femurs that are used for jumping; the jumping galerucines are accordingly known as flea beetles (Zborowski & Storey 2010).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Body form extremely varied but often subglabrous and brightly coloured. Antennae variable but usually filiform, very rarely enlarged apically to form club, never inserted on prominences, usually not extending beyond middle of body. Head often with grooves or prominences; labrum visible; maxillae and labium well developed with flexible palps; head may be rostrate, but rostrum not longer than wide; lateral pronotal carinae often complete but may be incomplete or absent; distinct tibial spurs not common; first three tarsal segments with ventral lobes covered with spatulate or bifid adhesive setae; fourth tarsal segment either minute and concealed at base of proceeding segment, or fused with terminal segment; tarsal claws sometimes cleft or appendiculate; basal ventrites never solidly fused. Larvae highly variable, usually lightly sclerotised except for head and sometimes numerous small plates or protuberances, usually with well-developed legs. Head often hypognathous with median endocarina; mandibles usually with three or more apical teeth; labrum usually free; rarely with urogomphi on T9.

<==Chrysomelidae
    |--Aulacoscelidinae GE05
    |--Halticinae M30
    |--Cryptocephalinae SW07
    |    |  i. s.: Aporocera ZS10
    |    |--Cryptocephalini SW07
    |    `--Clytrini SW07
    |--Sagra J89b [Sagrinae GE05]
    |    |--S. brevipes Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |    |--S. buqueti J89b
    |    |--S. mouhoti J89a
    |    `--S. multipunctata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--Eumolpinae [Eumolpidae] M30
    |    |--Eka M30
    |    |--Nephus Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |    |    `--*N. femoratus Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |    `--Rhyparida M30
    |         |--R. armata Jacoby 1889 J89b
    |         `--R. bimaculata Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--Bruchinae [Bruchidae] GE05
    |    |--Caryedes brasiliensis GE05
    |    |--Caryoborus pallidus B88
    |    |--Bruchidius niger Anton 2004 F05
    |    `--Bruchus G18
    |         |--B. flavescens Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--B. pisorum LR-S01
    |         |--B. plumbeus Lucas 1847 E12
    |         `--B. quadrimaculatus G18
    |--Galerucinae M30
    |    |--Taphina J89a
    |    |--Polysastra costatipennis ZS10
    |    |--Taphinella Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |    |    `--*T. nigripennis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |    |--Niasia Jacoby 1889 J89b
    |    |    `--*N. difformis Jacoby 1889 J89b
    |    `--Galeruca J89a
    |         |--G. foveicollis Lucas 1849 E12
    |         |--G. semipullata B88
    |         |--G. sublineatua Lucas 1849 E12
    |         `--G. variolosa [=Adimonia variolosa] J89a
    |--Megalopodinae [Donaciinae, Megalopinae] M05
    |    |--Colobaspis arida (Westwood 1864) [=Temnaspis arida] M05
    |    |--Palophagus GE05
    |    |--Plateumaris S02
    |    |    |--P. akiensis Tominaga & Katsura 1984 I92
    |    |    `--P. nitida GE05 [incl. Donacia primaeva S02]
    |    |--Donacia GE05
    |    |    |--D. aeraria J89a
    |    |    |--D. hintihumeralis Komiya & Kubota 1987 I92
    |    |    `--D. katsurai Kimoto 1981 I92
    |    `--Temnaspis M05
    |         |--T. bifasciata Mohamedsaid 1999 M05
    |         |--T. javana M05
    |         |--T. lunduensis Mohamedsaid 2005 M05
    |         `--T. nigripennis Jacoby 1889 J89a
    |--Chrysomelinae GE05
    |    |--Paropsis ZS10
    |    |    |--P. atomaria B88
    |    |    |--P. obsoleta ZS10
    |    |    `--P. reticulata B88
    |    |--Chrysolina GE05
    |    |    |--C. hyperici B04
    |    |    |--C. (Taeniosticha) petitpierrei Kippenberg 2004 F05
    |    |    |--C. picturata WFS04
    |    |    `--C. quadrigemina B04
    |    `--Chrysomela GE05
    |         |--C. aurichalcea J89a
    |         |--C. chloris Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--C. crassipes Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--C. erythromera Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--C. gaubilii Lucas 1846 E12
    |         `--C. stevensi J89a
    `--Hispinae [Cassidinae] GE05
         |--Acromis GE05
         |--Hispa callicantha Bates 1866 B66
         |--Coelaenomenodera elaeidis B88
         |--Brontispa longissima B88
         |--Hispellinus multispinosus ZS10
         |--Lasiochila Weise 1916 DK08
         |    |--L. gestroi (Baly 1888) DK08
         |    `--L. goryi (Guérin 1840) DK08
         |--Cassida B88
         |    |--C. algirica Boheman 1847 E12
         |    |--C. circumdata [=Metriona circumdata] B88
         |    `--C. herbea Boheman 1847 E12
         `--Promecotheca B88
              |--P. antiqua B88
              |--P. cummingii B88
              |--P. opacicollis B88
              |--P. papuana B88
              `--P. reichei A71

Chrysomelidae incertae sedis:
  Pseudomegamerus grandis GE05, P02
  Eucolaspis brunnea WFS04
  Diabrotica GJR97
    |--D. undecimpunctata WR-SG01
    |    |--D. u. undecimpunctata WR-SG01
    |    `--D. u. howardi WR-SG01
    `--D. virgifera GJR97
         |--D. v. virgifera GJR97
         `--D. v. zeae GJR97
  Oreina cacaliae AM07
  Arnomus brouni T27
  Nesaecrepidia BHM08
  Protoscelis GE05
  Protosceloides GE05
  Pseudocolaspis G89
    |--P. albostriata G89
    `--P. setosa Lucas 1847 E12
  Eurydemus oculatus Chap. 1879 G89
  Lactica unicolor G89
  Aulacophora G89
    |--A. abdominalis [=Crioceris abdominalis] G89
    |--A. atripennis J89a
    |--A. flavomarginata J89b
    |--A. foveicollis J89a
    |--A. frontalis J89b
    |--A. luteicornis J89b
    |--A. palliata J89a
    |--A. rosea [incl. A. albicornis] J89a
    `--A. similis J89b
  Monolepta G89
  Chrysoptharta SC04
  Aspidomorpha B88
  Physimera DL99
  Cheilotoma musciformis F05
    |--C. m. musciformis F05
    `--C. m. hispanica Medvedev 2004 F05
  Phyllotreta undulata S91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM07] Acosta, L. E., & G. Machado. 2007. Diet and foraging. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds) pp. 309-338. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BHM08] Baert, L., F. Hendrickx & J.-P. Maelfait. 2008. Allozyme characterization of Hogna species (Araneae, Lycosidae) of the Galápagos Archipelago. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 411-417.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339-355.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B04] Briese, D. T. 2004. Weed biological control: applying science to solve seemingly intractable problems. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 304-317.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311-318.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A. & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265-274.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439-11444.

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142-152).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J89a] Jacoby, M. 1889a. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII. – List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 147-237.

[J89b] Jacoby, M. 1889b. List of the phytophagous Coleoptera collected by Signor Modigliani at Nias and Sumatra, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 278-287.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourned University Press.

[LR-S01] Liu, A., & T. J. Ridsdill-Smith. 2001. Comparison of feeding damage by redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acari: Penthaleidae) to different grain legume species as an indicator of potentially resistant lines. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 295-299. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[M30] Maulik, S. 1930. Chrysomelid Coleoptera of the subfamilies Eumolpinae, Galerucinae, and Halticinae from the Seychelles and other islands of the western Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 21-22.

[M05] Mohamedsaid, M. S. 2005. Temnaspis lunduensis, a new species of Megalopodinae from Borneo (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Serangga 10 (1-2): 67-71.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 164-176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SW07] Schöller, M., & V. Witte. 2007. A review of the genus Clytrasoma Jacoby 1908, with description of a new species collected within a Camponotus sp. ant-nest (Insecta: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 51-61.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S91] Southcott, R. V. 1991. A further revision of Charletonia (Acarina: Erythraeidae) based on larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. Invertebrate Taxonomy 5: 61-131.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[WR-SG01] Wang, S. F., T. J. Ridsdill-Smith & E. L. Ghisalberti. 2001. Resistance in pasture legumes to redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acari: Penthaleidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 328-341. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61-72.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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