Greater shearwater Puffinus gravis, from John L. Turner.

Belongs within: Fulmarinae.

The Procellariinae includes the Procellaria petrels and the shearwaters. Procellariines are medium to larger tube-nosed seabirds with relatively long, sturdy bills. Compared to the Fulmarinae, they are more aquatic feeders, with an unfused lachrymal allowing for a more mobile bill (Campbell & Lack 1985). The petrels of the genus Procellaria have more strongly hooked bills than the shearwaters in the genera Calonectris and Puffinus. Calonectris differs from the other genera in being primarily found in the Northern Hemisphere.

<==Procellariinae WH02
    |--Procellaria Linnaeus 1758 JT12, B94 [=Majaqueus B94]
    |    |--P. parkinsoni Gray 1862 JT12, WH02
    |    `--+--P. cinerea Gmelin 1789 JT12, WH02
    |       `--+--P. westlandica Falla 1946 JT12, WH02 [=P. parkinsoni westlandica WH02]
    |          `--+--*P. aequinoctialis Linnaeus 1758 B94, JT12, WH02 [=*Majaqueus aequinoctialis B94]
    |             |    |--P. a. aequinoctialis M03
    |             |    `--P. a. conspicillata M03
    |             `--P. conspicillata JT12
    `--+--Calonectris Mathews & Iredale 1915 JT12, M02
       |    |--C. diomedea (Scopoli 1769) [=Puffinus diomedea; incl. P. eyermani Shufeldt 1896] M02
       |    |    |--C. d. diomedea R85
       |    |    `--C. d. borealis Cory 1881 R85
       |    |--C. edwardsii JT12 [=C. diomedea edwardsii HR96]
       |    `--C. leucomelas JT12
       `--Puffinus Brisson 1760 JT12, M02 [Puffinidae]
            |  i. s.: P. antiquus (Milne-Edwards 1874) [=Procellaria antiqua] M02
            |         P. aquitanicus (Milne-Edwards 1874) [=Procellaria aquitanica] M02
            |         P. auricularis M03
            |         P. elegans Giglioli & Salvadori 1869 WH02 [=P. assimilis elegans R85]
            |         P. heinrothi JT12
            |         P. holeae Walker, Wragg & Harrison 1900 [=P. holei] M02
            |         P. nestori Alcover 1989 M02
            |         P. raemdonckii (van Beneden 1871) [=Larus raemdonckii] M02
            |         P. spelaeus Holdaway & Worthy 1994 WH02
            |--+--+--P. bulleri Salvin 1888 JT12, WH02
            |  |  `--P. pacificus (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
            |  `--+--P. tenuirostris (Temminck 1835) JT12, WS48 [=Procellaria tenuirostris WS48]
            |     `--+--P. griseus (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02
            |        `--+--P. gravis JT12
            |           `--+--P. carneipes Gould 1844 JT12, WH02
            |              `--P. creatopus JT12
            `--+--P. nativitatis Streets 1877 JT12, R85
               `--+--+--P. gavia (Forster 1844) JT12, WS48 [=Procellaria gavia WS48]
                  |  `--P. huttoni Mathews 1912 JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
                  `--+--+--P. mauretanicus JT12
                     |  `--P. yelkouan JT12
                     `--+--+--P. newelli JT12 [=P. auricularis newelli M03, P. puffinus newelli USDI77]
                        |  `--+--P. opisthomelas JT12
                        |     `--‘Pseudobulweria’ aterrima JT12
                        `--+--P. puffinus (Brunnich 1764) JT12, R85 [=Procellaria puffinus B94]
                           `--+--P. lherminieri JT12
                              |    |--P. l. lherminieri I92
                              |    `--P. l. bannermani Mathews & Iredale 1915 I92
                              `--+--P. assimilis Gould 1838 JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |    |--P. a. assimilis R85
                                 |    `--P. a. tunneyi Mathews 1912 R85, WS48
                                 |--P. haurakiensis Fleming & Serventy 1943 WH02 [=P. assimilis haurakiensis HWT01]
                                 `--P. kermadecensis Murphy 1927 WH02 [=P. assimilis kermadecensis HWT01]

Puffinus assimilis Gould 1838 JT12, WH02 [incl. Alphapuffinus assimilis glauerti Mathews 1937 WS48]

Puffinus huttoni Mathews 1912 JT12, WH02 [=P. reinholdi huttoni WS48, P. gavia huttoni O81; incl. P. leptorhynchus Mathews 1937 WS48]

Puffinus pacificus (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02 [=Procellaria pacifica WS48; incl. Pu. chlororhynchus Lesson 1831 WS48, Pu. pacificus chlororhynchus HR96, Pu. sphenurus Gould 1844 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

Campbell, B., & E. Lack. 1985. A Dictionary of Birds. A. & C. Black.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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