Grey-winged trumpeters Psophia crepitans, photographed by A. Vinot.

Belongs within: Neoaves.
Contains: Rallidae, Gruidae.

Grues as defined here contains the 'core Gruiformes': cranes, rails and their relatives. The living Grues are divisible into two main groups: the Ralloidea includes the rails (Rallidae) and finfoots (Heliornithidae), while the Gruoidea include the cranes (Gruidae), limpkins (Aramus) and trumpeters (Psophia).

Synapomorphies (from Livezey 1998): Body of 'os' entoglossum unossified; facies ventralis of extremitas omalis coracoidei with foramen pneumaticum present.

    |--+--Messelornithidae M05b
    |  |    |--Itardiornis Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  |    |    `--*I. hessae Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  |    `--Messelornis Hesse 1988 M02
    |  |         |--*M. cristata Hesse 1988 M02
    |  |         |--M. nearctica Hesse 1992 M02
    |  |         `--M. russelli Mourer-Chauviré 1995 M02
    |  `--Ralloidea L98
    |       |--Rallidae L98
    |       `--Heliornithidae [Heliornithes, Podoanidae] L98
    |            |--Heliopais Sharpe 1893 L98
    |            |    `--H. personata (Gray 1849) L98
    |            `--+--Podica Lesson 1831 [Podicidae] L98
    |               |    `--P. senegalensis (Vieillot 1817) L98
    |               `--Heliornis Bonnaterre 1791 L98 [incl. Podoa Illiger 1811 B94]
    |                    `--H. fulica (Boddaert 1783) L98
    `--+--Geranoides [Geranoididae] FP64
       |    `--G. jepseni FP64
       `--+--Eogruidae [Ergilornithidae] FP64
          |    |--Proergilornis minor FP64
          |    |--Eogrus Wetmore 1934 M02
          |    |    `--E. aeola FP64
          |    |--Ergilornis Kozlova 1960 M02
          |    |    `--E. rapidus FP64
          |    `--Amphipelargus Lydekker 1891 [incl. Urmiornis Macquenem 1908] M02
          |         |--*A. majori Lydekker 1891 [incl. *Urmiornis maraghanus Macquenem 1908, A. maraghanus] M02
          |         |--‘Urmiornis’ orientalis Kuročkin 1981 M02
          |         `--A. ukrainus (Kuročkin 1981) [=Urmiornis ukrainus] M02
          `--Gruoidea L98
               |--Psophia Linnaeus 1758 [Psophiidae, Psophioidea] L98
               |    |--P. crepitans Linnaeus 1758 L98
               |    `--+--P. leucoptera Spix 1825 L98
               |       `--P. viridis Spix 1825 L98
               `--+--Parvigrus Mayr 2005 [Parvigruidae] M05a
                  |    `--*P. pohli Mayr 2005 M05a
                  `--+--Gruidae L98
                     `--Aramidae L98
                          |--Aminornis exavatus FP64
                          `--Aramus Vieillot 1816 L98
                               |--A. guaranus (Linnaeus 1766) L98
                               `--A. scolpaceau ZJM03

Trace fossil: Urmiornis abeli Lambrecht 1938 M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[L98] Livezey, B. C. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on the rails (Rallidae). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 353: 2077-2151.

[M05a] Mayr, G. 2005a. A chicken-sized crane precursor from the early Oligocene of France. Naturwissenschaften 92: 389-393.

[M05b] Mayr, G. 2005b. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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