Common loon Gavia immer, photographed by John C. Avise.

Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Gaviiformes contains the divers or loons. Divers are streamlined aquatic birds with the feet placed far back on the body, making them powerful swimmers but rather poor walkers.

    |--Lonchodytes [Lonchodytidae] FP64
    `--Gaviidae [Colymbidae, Colymboididae, Eudytidae, Urinatoridae] EA06
         |--Eupterornis Lemoine 1878 FP64, M02
         |    `--*E. remensis Lemoine 1878 M02
         |--Colymboides Milne-Edwards 1867 (see below for synonymy) M02
         |    |--*C. minutus Milne-Edwards 1867 [incl. *Hydrornis natator Milne-Edwards 1867, *Dyspetornis natator] M02
         |    |--C. anglicus Lydekker 1891 M05
         |    |--C. belgicus M05
         |    `--C. metzleri Mayr 2004 M05
         `--Gavia Forster 1788 M02 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*G. immer (Brünnich 1764) [=*Colymbus immer] B94
              |--G. adamsii SU93
              |--G. arctica EA06
              |--G. concinna M02
              |--G. egeriana Švec 1982 M02
              |--G. moldavica Kessler 1984 M02
              |--G. pacifica SU93
              |--G. paradoxa Umans’ka 1981 M02
              |--G. portisi (Regàlia 1902) [=Colymbus portisi] M02
              |--G. schultzi Mlíkovský 1998 M02
              `--G. stellata TB01

Colymboides Milne-Edwards 1867 [incl. Dyspetornis Oberholser 1905, Hydrornis Milne-Edwards 1867 non Blyth 1843] M02
Gavia Forster 1788 M02 [=Colymbus Linnaeus 1758 (nom. rej.) B94; incl. Eudytes Illiger 1811 B94, Mergus Brisson 1860 non Linnaeus 1758 B94, Urinator Lacépède 1799 B94]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[TB01] Tuinen, M. van, D. B. Butvill, J. A. W. Kirsch & S. B. Hedges. 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 268: 1345-1350.

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