Merginae

Common goldeneye Bucephala clangula, from here.


Belongs within: Anatinae.

The name Merginae has been used to unite the two tribes of primarily marine ducks. Somateriini includes the eiders, while the more diverse Mergini includes the mergansers, goldeneyes and scoters.

<==Merginae [Merganserinae]
    |--Somateriini [Somateriinae] A61
    |    |--Polysticta Eyton 1836 A61, B94 [incl. Macropodus Nuttall 1834 B94]
    |    |    `--P. stelleri WBSJ82
    |    `--Somateria Leach 1819 M02
    |         |--S. fischeri A61
    |         |--S. mollissima (Linnaeus 1758) [=Anas mollissima; incl. S. gravipes Harrison 1979] M02
    |         `--S. spectabilis WBSJ82
    `--Mergini SC99
         |  i. s.: Lophodytes cucullatus A61
         |         Clangula Leach 1819 A61, M02 [incl. Harelda Stephens 1824 B94; Clangulinae, Hareldinae]
         |           `--C. hyemalis SU93
         |         Melanitta Boie 1822 A61, M02 [incl. Oidemia Flemming 1822 B94; Melanittinae, Oidemiinae]
         |           |--M. fusca VP89
         |           |    |--M. f. fusca VP89
         |           |    `--M. f. stejnegeri VP89
         |           |--M. nigra (Linnaeus 1758) [=Anas nigra] M02
         |           `--M. perspicillata WBSJ82
         |         Mergus Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Merganser Brisson 1760 B94]
         |           |--M. australis Hombron & Jacquinot 1841 W04
         |           |--M. connectens Jánossy 1972 M02
         |           |--M. merganser Linnaeus 1758 M02
         |           |--M. octosetaceus MS55
         |           |--M. serrator Linnaeus 1758 M02
         |           `--M. squamatus Gould 1864 I92
         |--*Histrionicus histrionicus (Linnaeus 1758) SC99, I92 [=Anas histrionica M05]
         `--+--Mergellus Selby 1840 SC99, M02
            |    `--M. albellus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mergus albellus] M02
            `--Bucephala Baird 1858 SC99, M02 [incl. Glaucionetta Stejneger 1885 B94; Bucephalinae, Glaucionettinae]
                 |--B. albeola SU93
                 |--B. cereti Boeuf & Mourer-Chauviré 1992 M02
                 |--B. clangula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Anas clangula; incl. B. angustipes Jánossy 1965] M02
                 |--B. islandica A61
                 `--B. ossivallis FP64

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 241-265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M05] Möller, R. 2005. Zur Biographie des Ornithologen Karl Friedrich Bruch (1789-1857). Mauritiana 19 (2): 327-357.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 266: 2187-2193.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

[W04] Worthy, T. H. 2004. The Holocene fossil waterfowl fauna of Lake Poukawa, North Island, New Zealand. Tuhinga 15: 77-120.

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