Hemerobiiformia

Spongefly Sisyra, photographed by Stephen Marshall.


Belongs within: Neuroptera.
Contains: Osmylidae, Chrysopidae, Polystoechotidae, Hemerobiidae, Coniopterygidae.

The Hemerobiiformia is a diverse clade of lacewings united by characters of the larvae: elongate cardines, a modified neck, and having the underside of the head almost entirely composed of maxillary sclerites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Representative families include the Sisyridae, spongillaflies, whose larvae are specialised aquatic predators of freshwater sponges. The Mantispidae are superficially similar to mantids, with an elongate prothorax and large raptorial forelegs. The Berothidae, beaded lacewings, are characterised by an elongate pronotum and have larvae that are generally found on detritus or dead logs (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Hemerobiiformia [Hemerobioidea, Osmyloidea]
    |  i. s.: Chrysoleonites P02
    |--+--Osmylitidae GE05
    |  `--+--+--Osmylidae GE05
    |     |  `--Chrysopoidea P-FD12
    |     |       |  i. s.: Hallucinochrysa Pérez-de la Fuente, Delclòs et al. 2012 P-FD12
    |     |       |           `--*H. diogenesi Pérez-de la Fuente, Delclòs et al. 2012 P-FD12
    |     |       |--Chrysopidae GE05
    |     |       |--Aristenymphes Panfilov 1980 RY02 [Mesochrysopidae P-FD12, Mesochrysopinae]
    |     |       |--Limaiidae P-FD12
    |     |       |--Allopteridae P-FD12
    |     |       |--Liassochrysidae P-FD12
    |     |       `--Tachinymphes Ponomarenko 1992 RY02 [Tachinymphidae P-FD12]
    |     `--+--Polystoechotidae GE05
    |        `--Ithonidae [Ithonoidea] GE05
    |             |--Rapisma [Rapismatidae] GE05
    |             |--Adamsiana GE05
    |             `--Ithone ZS10
    `--+--Hemerobiidae GE05
       `--+--+--Coniopterygidae GE05
          |  `--Sisyridae GE05
          |       |  i. s.: Sisyrella Banks 1913 NM03
          |       |         Sisyrina Banks 1939 NM03
          |       |         Sisyborina Montserrat 1981 NM03
          |       |--Climacia McLachlan 1869 NM03
          |       |    `--C. areolaris (Hagen 1861) NM03
          |       `--+--Sisyra Burmeister 1839 NM03
          |          |    `--S. vicaria (Walker 1853) NM03
          |          `--Paleosisyra Nel, Menier et al. 2003 NM03
          |               `--*P. eocenica Nel, Menier et al. 2003 NM03
          `--+--Dilaridae GE05
             |    |--Cascadilar eocenicus GE05
             |    |--Nallachius [Nallachiinae] GE05
             |    |    `--N. americanus GE05
             |    `--Dilar [Dilarinae] GE05
             |         `--D. septentrionalis GE05
             `--+--Mantispidae GE05
                |    |  i. s.: Gerstaeckerella P02
                |    |         Mantispidiptera henryi GE05
                |    |         Mesomantispa P02 [Mesomantispinae GE05]
                |    |           `--M. sibirica P02
                |    |         Promantispa similis GE05
                |    |         Entanoneura HM55
                |    |           |--E. loanga (Navas 1909) [=Mantispa loanga] HM55
                |    |           `--E. machadoi Handschin & Markl 1955 HM55
                |    |         Campion ZS10
                |    |         Euclimaciella nuchalis ZS10
                |    |--Symphrasinae GE05
                |    `--+--Drepanicinae GE05
                |       `--+--Calomantispinae GE05
                |          `--Mantispinae GE05
                `--+--Sibithone Ponomarenko 1984 NM03 [Mesithonidae GE05]
                   |    `--S. dichotoma P02
                   `--+--Rhachiberothidae [Rhachiberothinae] GE05
                      |    |--Rhachibermissa splendida GE05
                      |    |--Whalfera venatrix GE05
                      |    `--Rhachiberotha T61
                      |         |--R. signifera T61
                      |         `--R. smithersi T61
                      `--Berothidae GE05
                           |  i. s.: Lomamyia GE05
                           |         Mucroberotha fasciata Tjed. 1959 T61
                           |--Berothinae GE05
                           |--Cyrenoberothinae GE05
                           |--Nosybinae GE05
                           |--Nyrminae GE05
                           |--Protobiellinae GE05
                           `--Trichomatinae GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E. & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[NM03] Nel, A., J.-J. Menier, A. Waller, G. Hodebert & G. de Ploëg. 2003. New fossil spongilla-flies from the lowermost Eocene amber of France (Insecta, Neuroptera, Sisyridae). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 109–117.

[P-FD12] Pérez-de la Fuente, R., X. Delclòs, E. Peñalver, M. Speranza, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso & M. S. Engel. 2012. Early evolution and ecology of camouflage in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21414–21419.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RY02] Ren D. & Yin J.-C. 2002. A new genus and new species of lacewings in the Jurassic of China (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 269–273.

[T61] Tjeder, B. 1961. Neuroptera-Planipennia. The lace-wings of southern Africa. 4. Family Hemerobiidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 296–408. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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