The tualang or tapang Koompassia excelsa, one of the tallest tropical trees, from the Danum Valley Field Centre.

Belongs within: Fabales.

The Caesalpinioideae are an assemblage of trees, shrubs and lianes traditionally recognised with the Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), though phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the 'caesalpinioids' may be paraphyletic (see the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). Caesalpinioids are distinguished from other legumes by having the sepals generally free at the base. Among economically significant species in the group is Tamarindus indicus, tamarind, whose fruit is used in cooking.

Characters (from Klitgaard & Lewis): Trees, shrubs or lianas; root nodules uncommon but many associations with fungi. Leaves bipinnate or paripinnate, rarely simple, 1-foliolate or 2-foliolate, sometimes with specialized glands, very rarely with a tendril. Flowers often bilaterally symmetrical, rarely radially symmetrical, usually relatively large; sepals generally free; petals imbricate in bud, the median petal overlapped by the lateral four; stamens (1-)10(-50), sometimes dimorphic or heteromorphic, filaments free or fused at the base, exserted or included in the corolla. Seeds often without a pleurogram, but if pleurogram present then closed.

<==Caesalpinioideae [Caesalpiniaceae]
    |--Hymenaea courbaril K06
    |--Berlinia P02
    |--Dicymbe corymbosa AHR03
    |--Tachigali rusbyi AHR03
    |--Afzelia H03
    |--Inocarpus fagiferus H03, C78
    |--Etaballia H03
    |--Koompassia excelsa H03, P88
    |--Intzia palembanica W01
    |--Labichea G04b
    |    |--L. punctata GK00
    |    `--L. stellata G04b
    |--Caesalpinia OA02
    |    |--C. bonduc J07
    |    |--C. decapetala H06
    |    |--C. major SR07
    |    |--C. merxmuellerana CV06
    |    |--C. oppositifolia H03
    |    |--C. pearsonii CV06
    |    |--C. sappan K03
    |    |--C. sepiaria J87
    |    `--C. spinosa OA02
    |--Cassia P02
    |    |--C. absus P03
    |    |--C. alata K03
    |    |--C. auriculata RS02
    |    |--C. fistula RS02
    |    |--C. kleinii SR07
    |    |--C. leschenaultiana P88
    |    |--C. mimosoides P88
    |    |--C. nigricans HK98
    |    |--C. obtusifolia C55
    |    |--C. occidentalis C55
    |    `--C. tora BB07
    |--Bauhinia B02b
    |    |  i. s.: B. bidentata P88
    |    |         B. blakeana P88
    |    |         B. kockiana K03
    |    |         B. ovatifolia B02a
    |    |         B. pauletia K06
    |    |         B. purpurea B02b
    |    |         B. racemosa B02b
    |    |         B. rufa K06
    |    |         B. semibifida K03
    |    |         B. ungulata K06
    |    |         B. vahlii P03
    |    |         B. variegata B02b
    |    |         B. wallichii B02a
    |    `--B. subg. Piliostigma sect. Piliostigma B02b
    |         |--B. foveolata B02b
    |         |--B. malabarica B02b
    |         `--‘Piliostigma’ reticulatum GC05
    |--Chamaecrista pumila PP07
    |--Parkinsonia aculeata PP07
    |--Saraca asoca BB07
    |--Tamarindus indicus BB07
    `--Senna G04a
         |--S. artemisioides G04a
         |    |--S. a. ssp. artemisioides G04a
         |    |--S. a. ssp. filifolia G04a
         |    |--S. a. ssp. helmsii EF04
         |    `--S. a. ssp. oligophylla EF04
         |--S. auriculata PP07
         |--S. bicapsulatus H06
         |--S. chateliana KM08
         |--S. corymbosa H06
         |--S. didymobotrya H06
         |--S. glutinosa EF04
         |    |--S. g. ssp. glutinosa EF04
         |    `--S. g. ssp. pruinosa EF04
         |--S. hirsuta H06
         |--S. ligustrina J87
         |--S. multiglandulosa H06
         |--S. obtusifolia PP07
         |--S. occidentalis H06
         |--S. pendula H06
         |    |--S. p. var. pendula H06
         |    `--S. p. var. glabrata H06
         |--S. pleurocarpa G04a
         |--S. septemtrionalis H06
         `--S. tora J07

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B02a] Bandyopadhyay, S. 2002a. Notes on the distribution of Bauhinia wallichii Macbr. and B. ovatifolia T. Chen, Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 547-548.

[B02b] Bandyopadhyay, S. 2002b. Seedling morphology of Bauhinia foveolata Dalz., Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 551-553.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[HK98] Hahn, A., & H. Kusserow. 1998. Spatial and temporal distribution of algae in soil crusts in the Sahel of W Africa: Preliminary results. Willdenowia 28: 227-238.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

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[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 203-206.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98-103.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213-219.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400-407.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[W01] Watling, R. 2001. The relationships and possible distributional patterns of boletes in south-east Asia. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1440-1448.

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