Trionychoidea

Chinese softshell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis. Photo from here.


Belongs within: Procoelocryptodira.
Contains: Kinosternidae, Trionyx.

The Trionychoidea is a clade of freshwater turtles including such taxa as the Trionychidae (soft-shell turtles), Carettochelys insculpta (pig-nose turtle) and Kinosternidae (musk turtles). Within the clade, Carettochelys and the Trionychidae are united by the possession of a snorkel-like snout and a leathery shell without epidermal scutes.

Synapomorphies (from Gaffney & Meylan 1988): Small stapedial artery, with large palatine artery and canalis caroticus lateralis; significant contribution of palatine to side-wall of braincase; tenth body vertebra free from costals; thelial process present; maxillary 'tooth' present; caudifibularis muscle present.

<==Trionychoidea
    |  i. s.: Emarginachelys GM88
    |         Agomphus GM88
    |--Kinosternoidae GM88
    |    |--Kinosternia GM88
    |    |    |--Hoplochelys GM88
    |    |    `--Kinosternidae GM88
    |    `--Dermatemydidae GM88
    |         |--Baptemys Leidy 1873 GM88, C77
    |         `--Dermatemys GM88
    |              |--D. costilatus Cope 1875 C77
    |              `--D. wyomingensis C77
    `--Trionychoidae GM88
         |--Adocidae GM88
         |    |--Adocus GM88
         |    `--Basilemys GM88
         `--+--Nanhsiungchelys [Nanhsiungchelyidae] GM88
            `--Trionychia GM88
                 |--Carettochelyidae GM88
                 |    |--Carettochelyinae GM88
                 |    |    |--Allaeochelys GM88
                 |    |    `--Carettochelys GM88
                 |    `--Anosteirinae GM88
                 |         |--Anosteira GM88
                 |         |--Kizylkumemys GM88
                 |         `--Pseudanosteira GM88
                 `--Trionychidae GM88
                      |--Cyclanorbinae GM88
                      |    |--Lissemys punctata GM88, USDI77
                      |    `--Cyclanorbis [Cyclanorbini] GM88
                      |         `--C. elegans GM88
                      `--Trionychinae GM88
                           |--Aspideretini GM88
                           |    |--Aspideretes muyuensis NG13
                           |    `--Nilssonia GM88
                           |--Pelodiscini GM88
                           |    |--Pelodiscus sinensis GM88, OC03
                           |    `--Doganiina GM88
                           |         |--Palea GM88
                           |         `--Dogania subplanus GM88
                           |--Chitrini GM88
                           |    |--Amyda cartilaginea GM88
                           |    `--Chitrina GM88
                           |         |--Pelochelys bibroni GM88, N10
                           |         `--Chitra GM88
                           `--Trionychini GM88
                                |--Trionyx GM88
                                `--Apalonina GM88
                                     |--Apalone GM88
                                     `--Rafetus GM88
                                          |--R. leloii N10
                                          `--R. swinhoei N10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[GM88] Gaffney, E. S., & P. A. Meylan. 1988. A phylogeny of turtles. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 157-219. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60-64.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733-755.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

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