Rubiaceae

Flowers of Coptosapelta, from here.


Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae.

The Rubiaceae are a family of plants found worldwide, distinguished by their opposite simple leaves with interpetiolar stipules. Among the more commercially significant members of the family are the Coffea species, from which come coffee, and the Gardenia (jasmine) species, grown as ornamentals and used to flavour tea. The majority of members of Rubiaceae are divided between the subclades Rubioideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae; taxa not included in these subgroups include the mostly Asian genera Luculia and Coptosapelta. Luculia includes shrubs and trees found from the Himalayas to China; L. grandifolia is a native of Bhutan with white to greenish-white flowers, while pink spice L. pinceana has a wide distribution from India to Vietnam and pink flowers. Coptosapelta comprises lianas and scandent shrubs found from China to New Guinea.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs or shrubs with opposite simple entire leaves and interpetiolar stipules, which are sometimes developed like leaves so there appears to be a whorl of leaves round stem. Flowers small, arranged more or less in cymes, sometimes reduced to heads, usually bisexual and regular, sometimes dioecious; calyx or corolla inserted at summit of torus, often surrounding epigynous disk; calyx with very short tube, 3-5 lobes or obsolete; corolla with 4-5 lobes or segments; stamens as many as corolla lobes, alternate with them, inserted in tube and usually enclosed; anthers versatile, two-celled; ovary inferior or rarely half-superior, adnate to torus, usually two-celled, sometimes one- or more-celled, one or more anatropous ovules in each cell; style simple or with as many branches as ovary cells; fruit a capsule or succulent drupe; seeds usually with horny albumen.

<==Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae]
    |--Luculia RB01
    |    |--L. grandifolia RB01
    |    `--L. pinceana RB01
    `--+--Rubioideae RB01
       |--Coptosapelta RB01
       |    |--C. diffusa BM00
       |    `--C. flavescens RB01
       `--+--Ixoroideae RB01
          `--Cinchonoideae RB01

Rubiaceae incertae sedis:
  Atractogyne YY22
  Siphonandrium YY22
  Alibertia edulis BJ99
  Amajoua YY22
  Anthispermum YY22
  Basanacantha YY22
  Byrsophyllum YY22
  Crocyllis YY22
  Duroia YY22
  Garapatica YY22
  Kotchubaea YY22
  Melanopsidium YY22
  Morindopsis YY22
  Stachyarrhena YY22
  Thieleodoxa YY22
  Bataprine YY22
  Bobea YY22
  Cuviera YY22
  Hodgkinsonia YY22
  Myonima YY22
  Pachystylus YY22
  Timonius YY22
  Bathysa YY22
  Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830 FT93
    `--P. gilletii BJ99
  Psydrax suaveolens G04
  Rutidea orientalis BM00
  Schenckia blumenaviensis BM00
  Aidia micrantha BJ99
  Aoranthe penduliflora BJ99
  Bertiera breviflora BJ99
  Burchellia bubalina BJ99
  Calochone redingii BJ99
  Canthium BJ99
    |--C. coromandelicum BJ99
    |--C. dicoccum P03
    |--C. neilgherrense RR02
    |    |--C. n. var. neilgherrense RR02
    |    `--C. n. var. chartaceum RR02
    |--C. odoratum B88
    `--C. parviflorum RS02
  Casasia clusiifolia BJ99
  Chomelia BJ99
  Cremaspora triflora BJ99
  Cubanola domingensis BJ99
  Didymosalpinx norae BJ99
  Euclinia longiflora BJ99
  Feretia aeruginescens BJ99
  Genipa americana BJ99
  Glossostipula concinna BJ99
  Gonzalagunia affinis BJ99
  Heinsia crinita BJ99
  Hippotis BJ99
  Kailarsenia ochreata BJ99
  Keetia zanzibarica BJ99
  Kraussia floribunda BJ99
  Ladenbergia pavonii BJ99
  Leptactina platyphylla BJ99
  Massularia acuminata BJ99
  Meyna BJ99
    |--M. laxiflora P03
    `--M. tetraphylla BJ99
  Oxyanthus BJ99
    |--O. pyriformis BJ99
    `--O. zanguebaricus BJ99
  Paracoffea melanocarpa BJ99
  Porterandia crosbyi BJ99
  Posoqueria latifolia BJ99
  Pseudosabicea arborea BJ99
  Psilanthus mannii BJ99
  Rachicallis americana BJ99
  Ramosmania rodriguesii BJ99
  Randia BJ99
    |--R. aculeata BJ99
    |--R. fitzalani [=Atractocarpus fitzalani] BJ99
    |--R. karstenii MM96
    `--R. moorei BJ99
  Rosenbergiodendron longiflorum BJ99
  Rothmannia longiflora BJ99
  Sabicea villosa BJ99
  Sukunia longipes BJ99
  Tamridaea capsulifera BJ99
  Tarenna BJ99
    |--T. cymosa BJ99
    `--T. neurophylla BJ99
  Tricalysia BJ99
    |--T. cryptocalyx BJ99
    |--T. malaccensis J06
    `--T. ovalifolia BJ99
  Plectronia Linnaeus 1767 BR65
    `--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium] BR65
  Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Sch. in Sch. & Laut. 1905] C95
  Chione venosa J87
  Stevensia hotteana J87
  Xeromphis spinosa KJ05
  Thecagonum ovalifolium P03
  Wendlandia P03
    |--W. exserta P03
    `--W. tinctoria P03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413-435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43-72.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 132-188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115-132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 121-130.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[RS02] Radhakrishna, S., & M. Singh. 2002. Activity schedule and habitat use of the slender loris Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 400-407.

[RR02] Ramachandran, V. S., & S. P. Raj. 2002. A note on the additional host range for the genus Korthasella van Tiegh. family Loranthaceae, from Nilgiris, southern India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 560.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515-538.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

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