Eudicotyledoneae

The American sycamore Platanus occidentalis, photographed by Bruce Marlin.


Belongs within: Mesangiospermae.
Contains: Buxanae, Ranunculales, Gunneridae, Proteaceae.

The Eudicotyledoneae is the clade containing the majority of species previously grouped in flowering plant classifications as 'dicotyledons' (the characters uniting dicotyledons in the broad sense are now regarded as plesiomorphies of flowering plants as a whole). Eudicots are distinguished by the possession of tricolpate pollen grains; it is possible that the loss of oil cells in the mesophyll and the dry fruit wall also represents a synapomorphy of the clade (Cantino et al. 2007). Cantino et al. (2007) defined Eudicotyledoneae as the least inclusive clade containing Ranunculus, Platanus, Sabia, Trochodendron, Buxus and Helianthus.

<==Eudicotyledoneae [Dilleniidae, Dilleniales, Dillenianae, Ranunculanae, Ranunculidae, Tricolpatae]
    |  i. s.: Buxanae CD07
    |--Ranunculales SR07
    `--+--+--Gunneridae SR07
       |  `--Trochodendrineae T00
       |       |--Euptelea [Eupteleaceae] T00
       |       `--Trochodendraceae SR07
       |            |--Tetracentron [Tetracentroideae] CD07
       |            `--Trochodendron [Trochodendroideae] CD07
       |                 `--T. aralioides Siebold & Zucc. 1838 CD07
       `--Proteales BL04
            |--Nelumbo [Nelumbonaceae, Nelumbonales] SR07
            |    |--N. nucifera Gaertn. 1789 C95 [incl. Nelumbium nelumbo P88, Nelumbium speciosum Willdenow 1799 C95]
            |    `--N. pentapetala [incl. N. lutea] C95
            `--+--Proteaceae SR07
               `--Platanaceae SR07
                    |--Macginicarpa PI-BW04
                    `--Platanus PI-BW04
                         |--P. fraxinifolia JD05
                         |--P. kerrii T00
                         |--P. latior Z02
                         |--P. occidentalis Linnaeus 1753 CD07
                         `--P. orientalis BW79


REFERENCES

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BW79] Bremer, K., & H.-E. Wanntorp. 1979. Geographic populations or biological species in phylogeny reconstruction? Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 220-224.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Nelumbonaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 189-191. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[PI-BW04] Pigg, K. B., S. M. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen. 2004. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 499-509.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312-315.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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