Crassatelloidea

Astarte castanea, photographed by Chris Harvey-Clark.


Belongs within: Heterodonta.

The Crassatelloidea are an assemblage of marine bivalves with a fossil record going back to the Ordovician. The shell ligament is internal in Crassatellidae, but external or inframarginal in Astartidae. The Myophoricardiidae are a group of small, subtrigonal to trapezoidal bivalves of uncertain affinities from the Triassic period (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Animal with fully open mantle, or communication between branchial and pedal openings; unequal branchiae; papillate mantle edge. Shell trigonal, trapezoidal, or rounded, with concentric external sculpture, costate to striate, vanishing in some, except in Cardiniidae with internal layer of straight or arcuate radial riblets, which may be reflected as crenulations of inner shell margin. Lunule and escutcheon generally distinct; beaks prosogyrate and pointed. Hinge lucinoid, with 3b median and 5b commonly present on right valve, thus more or less cyrenoid in appearance. Lateral teeth laminar in many forms; no PI developed except in Cardiniidae and Myophoricardiidae. Ligament external or internal. Integripalliate or with very faint sinuosity. Pedal scars well marked.

<==Crassatelloidea [Crassatellacea]
    |--Myophoricardiidae F99
    |    |--Myophoriopsis keuperina (Quenstedt 1851) [=Pseudocorbula keuperina] F99
    |    `--Pseudocorbula Philippi 1898 F99
    |         `--P. gregaria (Münster in Goldfuss 1837) [=Nucula gregaria, Myophoriopsis gregaria] F99
    |--Astartidae GW02
    |    |--Goodallia GW02
    |    |    |--G. gofasi Giribet & Peñas 1999 BC01
    |    |    `--G. micalii Giribet & Peñas 1999 BC01
    |    `--Astarte GW02
    |         |--A. castanea GW02
    |         |--A. crenata K92
    |         |--A. elongata d’Orb. 1844 [incl. A. oblongata Desh. in Leymerie 1842 non A. oblonga Swerby 1826] F27b
    |         |--A. gemma Dana 1849 F71
    |         |--A. oblonga Sowerby 1826 F27b
    |         |--A. portlandica Mighels 1843 J49
    |         `--A. sulcata GW02
    `--Crassatellidae GW02
         |--Crassatina suduirauti Lamprell 2003 MG-H11
         |--Spissatella Finlay 1926 F27a
         |    `--*S. trailli [=Crassatella trailli] F27a
         |--Salaputium Iredale 1924 F27a, F27b
         |    |--*S. fulvidum [=Crassatella fulvida] F27b
         |    |--S. communis (Harris 1897) (see below for synonymy) F27b
         |    `--S. martini Finlay 1927 [=Crassatella parva Martin 1879 non Adams 1852] F27b
         |--Talabrica GW02
         |    |--*T. aurora P61 [=Crassatella aurora P61, Crassatellites aurora F27a]
         |    |--T. bellula (Adams 1854) [=Crassatellites bellulus] F27a
         |    |--T. cordiformis (Suter 1917) [=Crassatellites cordiformis] F27a
         |    `--T. media (Marwick 1926) [=Eucrassatella media] F27a
         |--Eucrassatella GW02
         |    |--*E. kingicola (Lamarck 1804) F27a, H09 [=Crassatella kingicola H09, Crassatellites kingicola F27a]
         |    |--E. ampla (Zittel 1865) [=Crassatellites amplus] F27a
         |    |--E. attenuata (Hutton 1873) [=Crassatellites attenuatus] F27a
         |    |--E. cumingii GW02
         |    `--E. oblonga Q72
         `--Crassatella F27b
              |--C. astartiformis Nyst 1847 F27b
              |--C. obesa Adams 1854 F27b
              |--C. parva Adams 1852 F27b
              |--C. sowerbyi F27b
              |    |--C. s. sowerbyi F27b
              |    `--C. s. searlesi Finlay 1927 [=C. sowerbyi var. obesa Wood 1871 non C. obesa Adams 1854] F27b
              `--C. sulcata F66

Salaputium communis (Harris 1897) [=Crassatella communis, C. astartiformis Tate 1886 non Nyst 1847, C. tatei Cossmann 1913] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[F99] Freneix, S. 1999. Bivalves du Trias tariquide de Los Pastores (Algésiras), Espagne. Leur signification. Geodiversitas 21 (2): 137–146.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[K92] Kozloff, E. N. 1992. The genera of the phylum Orthonectida. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 33: 377–406.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

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