Cyclocardia ventricosa, photographed by L. Schroeder. Scale bar = 1 cm.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.
Contains: Venericardia.

The Carditoidea are an assemblage of marine infaunal bivalves that first appeared in the Devonian. Phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the Carditoidea are one of the earliest-diverging lineages in the Heterodonta. Within the Carditoidea, the Carditidae have shells with strong radial ribs and an external ligament. The Condylocardiidae have an internal ligament, and the radial ribs may be well marked or may be obliterated by concentric ornamentation (Cox et al. 1969).

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Shell trigonal to cordiform, trapezoidal, or mytiliform, with radial external sculpture predominating at least locally over concentric and with internal layer of straight radial riblets, which invariably crenulate margin if relatively strong; with more or less marked medioposterior rib or angulation; lunule small, commonly depressed; escutcheon somewhat ill defined; beaks prosogyrate, tending to be rounded. Hinge of curved lucinoid type with two unequal teeth (2, 4b) in left valve, 3b oblique; 5b very thin, if present; PI and AIV lacking, other laterals tuberculiform or remote, producing in some shells hinge of cyrenoid aspect; ligament internal or external, latter type inserted on well-marked nymph; shell integripalliate; pedal scars distinct. Animal byssiferous, with open mantle lacking communication between branchial aperture and pedal slitlike outlet; gills large, unequal, united posteriorly.

    |  i. s.: Purpurocardia Maxwell 1969 S98
    |           |--*P. purpurata (Deshayes 1854) [=Cardita purpurata] S98
    |           `--P. fyfei (Finlay & Marwick 1937) S98
    |--Condylocardiidae GW02
    |    |--Benthocardiella Powell 1930 P61
    |    |    |--*B. pusilla Powell 1930 P61
    |    |    |--B. hamatadens Powell 1930 P61
    |    |    |--B. obliquata Powell 1930 P61
    |    |    |    |--B. o. obliquata P61
    |    |    |    |--B. o. bountyensis Powell 1933 P61
    |    |    |    `--B. o. chathamensis Powell 1933 P61
    |    |    |--B. rakiura Powell 1939 P61
    |    |    `--B. striatula Powell 1931 P61
    |    |--Condylocardia Bernard 1896 [incl. Condylocuna Iredale 1936, Radiocondyla Iredale 1936] P61
    |    |    |--*C. sanctipauli P61
    |    |    |--C. chathamensis Powell 1933 P61
    |    |    |--C. concentrica Bernard 1897 P61 [=Condylocuna concentrica HS01]
    |    |    |--C. crassicosta Bernard 1896 P61
    |    |    |--C. mernoo Dell 1952 P61
    |    |    |--C. ovata Hedley 1906 H09
    |    |    |--C. porrecta Hedley 1906 H09
    |    |    |--C. torquata Marwick 1928 P61
    |    |    `--C. trifoliata Hedley 1906 H09
    |    `--Cuna Hedley 1902 GW02, P61 [incl. Volupicuna Iredale 1936 P61]
    |         |  i. s.: C. delta (Tate & May 1900) F27a [=Carditella delta H09]
    |         |         C. flava Hedley 1906 H09
    |         |--C. (Cuna) P61
    |         |    |--*C. (C.) concentrica P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) aupouria Powell 1937 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) carditelloides Suter 1907 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) compressidens Powell 1933 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) laqueus Finlay 1927 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) manawatawhia Powell 1937 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) mayi Powell 1930 P61
    |         |    |--C. (C.) mendica Dell 1952 P61
    |         |    `--C. (C.) waikukuensis Powell 1937 P61
    |         `--C. (Hamacuna Cotton 1931) P61
    |              |--C. (*H.) hamata P61
    |              |--C. (H.) gibbosa Powell 1937 P61
    |              `--C. (H.) otagoensis Powell 1927 P61
    `--Carditidae [Carditoidea] GW02
         |--Cardites antiquata GW02
         |--Cyclocardia ventricosa GW02
         |--Mytilicardia tasmanica F27a
         |--Venericardia MG-H11
         |--Beguina semiorbiculata (Linnaeus 1758) BW09
         |--Glans carpenteri (Lamy 1922) [=Cardita carpenteri, G. subquadrata (Carpenter 1864) (preoc.)] C77
         |--Verticipronus Hedley 1904 P61
         |    `--*V. mytilus Hedley 1904 P61
         |--Glyptoactis Stewart 1930 DK08
         |    `--G. (Fasciculicardia Maxwell 1969) DK08
         |         `--G. (F.) latissima (Tate 1886) (see below for synonymy) DK08
         |--Pleuromeris Conrad 1867 P61
         |    |--*P. tridentata [=Cardita tridentata] P61
         |    |--P. latiuscula Powell 1937 P61
         |    |    |--P. l. latiuscula P61
         |    |    `--P. l. benthicola Powell 1937 P61
         |    |--P. marshalli Marwick 1924 P61
         |    |--P. paucicostata Laws 1940 P61
         |    |--P. ultima Dell 1956 P61
         |    `--P. zelandica (Deshayes 1854) P61
         `--Cardita Bruguière 1792 P61
              |--*C. calyculata (Linnaeus 1758) P61, F27a [=Chama calyculata F27a]
              |--C. aoteana Finlay 1927 F27a
              |--C. awamoaensis Harris 1897 [=C. awamoensis, Venericardia intermedia Hutton 1873 (preoc.)] F27b
              |--C. brookesi Finlay 1927 F27a
              |--C. cardioides Reeve 1843 H09
              |--C. crassicosta Lamarck 1819 H09
              |--C. excavata Deshayes 1854 MG-H11
              |--C. fritzi Finlay 1927 [=C. scabrosa Noetling 1901 non Tate 1886] F27b
              |--C. incrassata Sowerby 1825 MG-H11
              |--C. insignis Smith 1885 H09
              |--C. marmorea Reeve 1843 H09
              |--C. muricata GW02
              |--C. planicosta Lamarck 1806 F27b
              |--C. scabrosa Tate 1886 F27b
              |--C. semiorbiculata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Chama semiorbiculata] H09
              |--C. transclathratum Viader 1951 L96
              |--C. variegata (Bruguière 1792) BW09
              |--C. vaughani Viader 1951 L96
              `--C. vinsoni Viader 1951 L96

Glyptoactis (Fasciculicardia) latissima (Tate 1886) [=Cardita latissima, Glans (F.) latissima, Venericardia (F.) latissima; incl. Cardium arcaeformis Chapman & Crespin 1934] DK08

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C77] Coan, E. V. 1977. Glans carpenteri vs. Glans subquadrata: the rules concerning renamed transient secondary homonyms. Veliger 20 (1): 63.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[L96] Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research 17: 110.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

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