Calophylloideae

The ironwood Mesua ferrea, photographed by Scott Zona.


Belongs within: Clusiaceae.

The Calophylloideae are an assemblage of about 450 species of tropical trees and shrubs in the family Clusiaceae. One species, the mammee Mammea americana, is used in some parts of the Americas as a fruit tree, while other species are used for their wood.

Characters (from Stevens 1995): Leaves opposite or alternate; latex glands dots or lines. Inflorescence lateral or terminal; bracts present, deciduous or not, bracteoles often absent. Flowers regular, hermaphroditic or unisexual. Sepals and petals sometimes not clearly separated, up to 14, or sepals 4 or 5, decussate or imbricate, petals 4 or 5, decussate, imbricate or contorted. Stamens numerous, usually free. Ovary superior, 2-5-carpellate; ovules anatropous, basal or apical, usually 1-12; styles fused, rarely free; stigma often very prominently developed. Fruit a drupe, drupe-like, berry-like or a capsule. Seeds large to small; cotyledons well developed, sometimes fused; aril absent.

<==Calophylloideae
    |--Mesua ferrea Linnaeus 1753 S95
    |--Kayea S95
    |    |--K. coriacea (Stevens) Stevens 1993 [=Mesua coriacea Stevens 1974] S95
    |    `--K. macrophylla Kan. & Hat. 1942 [=Mesua macrophylla (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1969] S95
    |--Mammea S95
    |    |--M. americana C55
    |    |--M. congregata S95
    |    |--M. cordata Stevens 1974 S95
    |    |--M. grandifolia Stevens 1974 S95
    |    |--M. novoguineensis (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1956 (see below for synonymy) S95
    |    |--M. odorata (Raf.) Kosterm. 1956 (see below for synonymy) S95
    |    |--M. papuana (Laut.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Ochrocarpus papuana Laut. 1922] S95
    |    |--M. papyracea Stevens 1993 S95
    |    `--M. veimauriensis Stevens 1974 S95
    `--Calophyllum S95
         |--C. acutiputamen Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. alboramulum H03
         |--C. articulatum S95
         |--C. bicolor Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. bifurcatum Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. blancoi H03
         |--C. brasiliense SWK87
         |--C. brassii Smith 1941 S95
         |--C. carrii Stevens 1974 S95
         |    |--C. c. var. carrii S95
         |    `--C. c. var. longigemmatum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. caudatum Kan. & Hat. 1942 S95
         |--C. collinum Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. confusum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. costatum S95
         |--C. dasypodum H03
         |--C. euryphyllum Laut. 1922 S95
         |--C. goniocarpum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. heterophyllum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. hirasimum Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. inophyllum Linnaeus 1753 S95
         |--C. insularum Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. lanigerum H03
         |    |--C. l. var. lanigerum H03
         |    `--C. l. var. austrocoriaceum H03
         |--C. laticostatum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. leleanii Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. leucocarpum S95
         |--C. macrophyllum Scheffer 1873 S95
         |--C. morobense Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. neo-ebudicum Guillaumin 1931 [incl. C. pseudovitiense Stevens 1974] S95
         |--C. novoguineense Kan. & Hat. 1942 [incl. C. warenense Kan. & Hat. 1942] S95
         |--C. obscurum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. papuanum Laut. 1922 S95
         |--C. parvifolium Choisy 1823 [incl. C. microphyllum Planch. & Triana 1862, C. schefferi Vesque 1893] S95
         |--C. pauciflorum Smith 1941 [incl. C. congestiflorum Smith 1941] S95
         |--C. peekelii Laut. 1922 S95
         |--C. persimile Stevens 1980 S95
         |--C. piluliferum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. robustum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. rufinerve Kan. & Hat. 1942 S95
         |--C. rupicolum P88
         |--C. savannarum Smith 1941 S95
         |--C. sil Laut. 1922 [incl. C. procerum Smith 1941] S95
         |--C. soulattri Burm. 1768 (see below for synonymy) S95
         |--C. streimannii Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. suberosum Stevens 1974 S95
         |--C. trachycaule Laut. 1922 S95
         |--C. vexans Stevens 1974 [incl. C. gaimanum Stevens 1974] S95
         `--C. waliense Stevens 1980 S95

Calophyllum soulattri Burm. 1768 [incl. C. kiong Laut. & Sch. 1901, C. lanceolatum Warb. 1891, C. paludosum White 1941, C. solomonense Smith 1941, C. versteegii Laut. 1922, C. warburgii Engl. 1892] S95

Mammea novoguineensis (Kan. & Hat.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Ochrocarpus novoguineensis Kan. & Hat. 1942; incl. M. lancelimba Kosterm. 1956] S95

Mammea odorata (Raf.) Kosterm. 1956 [=Lolanara odorata Raf. 1837, Ochrocarpus odoratus (Raf.) Merr. 1945; incl. O. excelsus (Planch. & Triana) Vesque 1893, O. ovalifolius Anderson ex Hemsl. 1885, O. pachyphyllus Sch. 1889] S95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S95] Stevens, P. F. 1995. Guttiferae subfam. Calophylloideae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 (B. J. Conn, ed.) pp. 61-126. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

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