Arcoidea

Ponderous ark Noetia ponderosa, from here.


Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Arcinae.

The Arcoidea are a group of bivalves that first appeared in the Lower Ordovician. Many members of the Arcidae, the ark clams, can be found in depressions or crevices in firm substrates to which they attach by a byssus.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Generally trapezoidal, radially ornamented; ligament elongate, generally duplivincular or striate, not confined to median resilifer; periostracum commonly conspicuous.

<==Arcoidea
    |--Noetiidae GW02
    |    |--Striarca lactea GW02
    |    |--Noetia ponderosa GW02
    |    `--Arcopsis MG-H11
    `--Arcidae GW02
         |  i. s.: Petunculus ornatus Viader 1951 L96
         |         Fossularca januaria Marwick 1926 F27a
         |         Nordenskjoeldia Wilckens 1910 F27a
         |           |--*N. nordenskjoeldi Wilckens 1910 F27a
         |           `--N. woodsi Wilckens 1920 F27a
         |         Barbatia Gray 1842 K07
         |           |--*B. barbata P61
         |           |--B. amygdalumtostum (Röding 1798) BW09
         |           |--B. coma (Reeve 1844) BW09
         |           |--B. foliata Forsskal 1775 BW09
         |           |--B. novaezealandiae Smith 1915 P61
         |           |--B. obliquata GW02
         |           |--B. plicata (Dillwyn 1817) MG-H11 [=Arca plicata BD86, Acar plicatum BD86]
         |           |--B. reticulata (Gmelin 1791) MG-H11
         |           |--B. saviolum (Iredale 1939) MG-H11
         |           |--B. tenella (Reeve 1843) BW09
         |           `--B. virescens GW02
         |         Parallellodon reticulatus [incl. Byssoarca clathrata M’Coy 1844] F27b
         |         Bentharca Verrill & Bush 1898 K07
         |           |--*B. asperula (Dall 1881) K07
         |           |--B. decorata Hayami & Kase 1993 K07
         |           |--B. excavata Hayami & Kase 1993 K07
         |           |--B. irregularis Hayami & Kase 1993 K07
         |           `--B. tenuis Hayami & Kase 1993 K07
         |         Asperarca Sacco 1898 K07
         |           |--*A. nodulosa (Müller 1776) (see below for synonymy) K07
         |           `--A. xenophoricola (Kuroda 1929) (see below for synonymy) K07
         |         Deltaodon Barnard 1962 K07
         |           |--*D. tugelae Barnard 1962 K07
         |           `--D. rubrotincta (Kuroda & Habe in Habe 1958) [=Bentharca rubrotincta] K07
         |         Samacar Iredale 1936 K07
         |           |--S. pacifica (Nomura & Zinbo 1934) K07
         |           `--S. strabo (Hedley 1915) K07
         |         Barbarca Dall, Bartsch & Rehder 1938 K07
         |         Bathyarca Kobelt 1891 K07
         |           `--B. (Microcucullaea Iredale 1929) P61
         |                |--B. (*M.) perversidens P61
         |                `--B. (M.) cybaea (Hedley 1906) P61
         |         Coraliarca Habe & Okutani 1968 K07
         |         Hawaiarca Dall, Bartsch & Rehder 1938 K07
         |         Mimarcaria Iredale 1939 K07
         |         Idonearca Conrad 1862 W77
         |           |--I. depressa White 1877 W77
         |           `--I. shumardi W77
         |         Scaphula G88
         |--Arcinae BD86
         `--Anadarinae BD86
              |--Anadara BW09
              |    |  i. s.: A. trapezia (Deshayes 1840) P61
              |    |--A. (Anadara) PP78
              |    |    |--*A. antiquata (Linnaeus 1758) P61, BW09 [=Arca antiquata P61]
              |    |    `--A. (A.) adamsi Olsson 1961 PP78
              |    `--A. (Rasia) formosa (Sowerby 1833) PP78
              `--Scapharca Gray 1847 BD86, F27a
                   |--S. cornea Reeve 1844 BD86
                   |--S. demiri Piani 1981 [=Arca amygdalum Philippi 1847 non Link 1807] BD86
                   |--S. disparilis F66
                   |--S. inaequivalvis (Bruguiere 1789) [=Arca inaequivalvis] BD86
                   `--S. natalensis (Krauss 1848) BD86

*Asperarca nodulosa (Müller 1776) [=Arca nodulosa, Acar nodulosa, Barbatia nodulosa; incl. Acar nodulosa var. carinatula Sacco 1898, Acar nodulosa var. perelliptica Sacco 1898, Acar nodulosa var. subandosa Sacco 1898, Acar nodulosa var. subelliptica Sacco 1898] K07

Asperarca xenophoricola (Kuroda 1929) [=Bathyarca xenophoricola, Arca (Bathyarca) xenophoricola, Bentharca xenophoricola] K07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[K07] Kamenev, G. M. 2007. The taxonomic position of Bentharca xenophoricola (Kuroda, 1929) and Bentharca rubrotincta Kuroda & Habe in Habe, 1958 (Bivalvia: Arcidae). Malacologia 49 (2): 351–365.

[L96] Loch, I. 1996. Notice: R. Viader collection. Molluscan Research 17: 110.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 211–221.

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