Skull of the protoceratid Synthetoceras, photographed by Ryan Somma.

Belongs within: Cetartiodactyla.
Contains: Camelidae.

The Tylopoda is the clade containing the modern-day camels and their fossil relatives, though authors have differed as to whether certain taxa such as Cainotheriidae and Protoceratidae are more closely related to Camelidae than to other living artiodactyls. Gentry & Hooker (1988) united Cameloidea and Anoplotherioidea on the basis of incipient metatarsal reduction, incipient dorsal extension of a hooked dentary angle and a cylindrical distal humeral trochlea. Cainotheriidae was then weakly associated with the two on the basis of a large upper molar paraconule shared with the Anoplotherioidea.

    |--Cainotheriidae GH88
    |    |--Cainotherium JJ84
    |    `--Robiacina GH88
    `--+--Cameloidea GH88
       |    |--+--Camelidae GH88
       |    |  `--Oromerycidae GH88
       |    `--+--Leptotragulidae GH88
       |       `--Synthetoceras JJ84 [Protoceratidae GH88]
       `--Anoplotherioidea GH88
            |--Xiphodontidae GH88
            `--+--Anoplotheriidae [Anoplotheriinae] GH88
               `--Dacrytheriidae [Dacrytheriinae] GH88
                    |--Leptotheridium Stehlin 1910 SL00
                    |--Dacrytherium Filhol 1876 SL00
                    |--Catodontherium Deperet 1908 SL00
                    |    `--C. argentonicum Stehlin 1910 SL00
                    `--Tapirulus Gervais 1850 SL00
                         |--T. majori Stehlin 1910 SL00
                         `--T. perrierensis Sudre 1978 SL00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GH88] Gentry, A. W., & J. J. Hooker. 1988. The phylogeny of the Artiodactyla. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 2. Mammals (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 235-272. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JJ84] Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.

[SL00] Sudre, J., & G. Lecomte. 2000. Relations et position systématique du genre Cuisitherium Sudre et al., 1983, le plus dérivé des artiodactyles de l’Éocène inféreur d’Europe. Geodiversitas 22 (3): 415-432.

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