Ruminantia

Mounted skeleton of the basal fossil ruminant Hypertragulus calcaratus in the American Museum of Natural History. Photographed by Ghedoghedo.


Belongs within: Cetartiodactyla.
Contains: Tragulidae, Pecora.

The Ruminantia are a clade of artiodactyls characterised in living species by the possession of a multi-chambered stomach in which food is broken down by bacteria living in a large fermentation chamber, the rumen.

See also: Horns and guts.

Synapomorphies (from Janis & Scott 1988): Tarsus with fused cuboid and navicular; upper incisors reduced or lost; incisiform lower canines.

<==Ruminantia [Tragulina]
    |  i. s.: Russa equina M89
    |         Cervulus M89
    |           |--C. crinifrons TD89
    |           |--C. feae Thomas & Doria 1889 TD89
    |           |--C. moschatus TD89
    |           |--C. muntjac M89
    |           |--C. reevesii D59
    |           `--C. vaginalis D59
    |         Indomeryx JS88
    |         Pseudoceras JS88
    |         Pseudomeryx JS88
    |         Archaeomeryx [Archaeomerycidae] HD03
    |--Hypertragulidae [Hypertraguloidea] JS88
    |    |--Hypertragulus HD03
    |    |--Simimeryx HD03
    |    |--Hypisodus JS88
    |    |--Nanotragulus JS88
    |    `--Parvitragulus JS88
    `--+--Amphimeryx HD03 [Amphimerycidae GH88]
       `--+--Tragulidae JS88
          `--+--+--Bachitherium [Bachitheriidae] JS88
             |  `--+--Pecora JS88
             |     `--Lophiomerycidae JS88
             |          |--Lophiomeryx JS88
             |          |--Cryptomeryx JS88
             |          `--Iberomeryx JS88
             `--Leptomerycidae JS88
                  |--Leptomeryx HD03
                  |--Hendryomeryx JS88
                  |--Miomeryx JS88
                  |--Pronodens JS88
                  |--Pseudoparablastomeryx JS88
                  `--Xinjiangmeryx JS88

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[GH88] Gentry, A. W., & J. J. Hooker. 1988. The phylogeny of the Artiodactyla. In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 2. Mammals (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 235-272. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[HD03] Hassanin, A., & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2): 206-228.

[JS88] Janis, C. M., & K. M. Scott. 1988. The phylogeny of the Ruminantia (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 2. Mammals (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 273-282. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Appunti intorno ai mammiferi dell'isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 238-245.

[TD89] Thomas, O., & G. Doria. 1889. Diagnosi di una nuova specie del genere Cervulus raccolta da L. Fea nel Tenasserim. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 92.

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