Pecora

Pronghorns Antilocapra americana photographed by Courtney Milne.


Belongs within: Ruminantia.
Contains: Giraffoidea, Bovidae, Cervidae.

The Pecora are the clade containing most modern ruminants except for the chevrotains. Relationships within the Pecora have long been debated, but most recent studies support a monophyletic grouping of Bovidae, Moschidae and Cervidae, with Giraffidae and Antilocapra outside this clade. The centre of modern diversity for the Pecora is the Old World; the pronghorn Antilocapra americana is, however, native to North America (as are some species of Bovidae and Cervidae).

Synapomorphies (from Janis & Scott 1988): Compact, parallel-sided astragalus; stapedial artery absent; enlarged fossa for stapedial muscle on petrosal; subarcuate fossa reduced; broadened basioccipital with strong flexion stops on condyles; laterally enclosed postglenoid foramen; fore- and hindlimbs almost equal in length; four-chambered stomach with omasum.

<==Pecora [Cervoidea, Dremotheriidae, Eucervoidea, Eupecora, Gelocidae, Moschina]
    |  i. s.: Ligeromeryx HD03
    |         Stephanocemas HD03
    |         Hypsodontus JS88
    |         Kubanotragus JS88
    |--Gelocus JS88
    |    |--G. communis JS88
    |    `--G. whitworthi Hamilton 1973 G78a
    `--+--Gobiomeryx JS88
       |--Notomeryx JS88
       |--+--Giraffoidea HD03
       |  `--Antilocapridae HD03
       |       |--Alticornis JJ84
       |       |--Merycodus Leidy 1854 C77 [Merycodontinae HD03]
       |       |    `--M. sabulonis MHL03
       |       |--Antilocapra [Antilocaprinae] GRH06
       |       |    `--A. americana (Ord in Guthrie 1815) B75 [=Antilope americanus B75; incl. Antilope furcifera H04]
       |       |         |--A. a. americana K84
       |       |         |--A. a. mexicana Merriam 1901 MB86
       |       |         |--A. a. peninsularis K84
       |       |         `--A. a. sonoriensis K84
       |       `--Paracosoryx wilsoni MJ11, MHL03
       `--+--Prodremotherium JS88
          `--+--Eumeryx JS88
             |--Rutitherium JS88
             `--+--Walangania JS88 [incl. Kenyameryx Ginsburg  & Heintz 1966 H78]
                |    `--W. africanus (Whitworth 1958) G78b (see below for synonymy)
                `--+--+--+--Bovidae HD03
                   |  |  `--Hoplitomerycidae HD03
                   |  |       |--Hoplitomeryx [Hoplitomerycidae] HD03
                   |  |       `--Amphimoschus JS88
                   |  `--Moschidae HD03
                   |       |  i. s.: Dremotherium feignouxi JS88, BLB05
                   |       |         Hispanomeryx JS88
                   |       |         Micromeryx JS88
                   |       |--Moschus [Moschinae] JS88
                   |       |    |--M. berezovskii F84
                   |       |    |--M. chrysogaster F84
                   |       |    |--M. fuscus IT07
                   |       |    |--M. moschiferus GRH06
                   |       |    `--M. sifanicus BP87
                   |       `--Blastomerycinae [Blastomerycini] JS88
                   |            |--Blastomeryx JS88
                   |            |--Machaeromeryx JS88
                   |            |--Longirostromeryx JS88
                   |            |--Parablastomeryx JS88
                   |            `--Problastomeryx JS88
                   `--+--+--Cervidae HD03
                      |  `--Lagomerycidae GRH06
                      |       |--Lagomeryx Roger 1904 JS88, H78
                      |       `--Procervulus Gaudry 1878 GRH06, H78
                      `--Palaeomerycidae JS88
                           |  i. s.: Triceromeryx Villalta, Crusafont & Lavocat 1946 H78
                           |         Progiraffa Pilgrim 1908 H78
                           |         Prolibytherium Arambourg 1961 JS88, C78
                           |           `--P. magnieri Arambourg 1961 C78
                           |--Palaeomerycinae [Palaeomerycini] H78
                           |    |--Amphitragulus H78
                           |    `--Palaeomeryx [incl. Propalaeomeryx, Prox] H78
                           |         |--P. bojani H78
                           |         |--P. eminens H78
                           |         `--‘Propalaeomeryx’ sivalensis Lydekker 1883 H78
                           `--Dromomerycinae [Dromomerycidae] JS88
                                |--Aletomeryx JS88
                                |--Barbouromeryx JS88
                                |--Bouromeryx JS88
                                |--Cranioceras JS88
                                |--Drepanomeryx JS88
                                |--Dromomeryx JS88
                                |--Rakomeryx JS88
                                |--Pediomeryx JS88
                                |--Procranioceras JS88
                                `--Sinclairomeryx JS88

Inorganic: Moschus moshipus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Walangania africanus (Whitworth 1958) G78b [=Palaeomeryx africanus G78b, *Kenyameryx africanus H78; incl. Walangania gracilis G78b]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLB05] Boisserie, J.-R., F. Lihoreau & M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (5): 1537-1541.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C78] Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[F84] Frädrich, H. 1984. Musk deer. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 78-79. Torstar Books: New York.

[G78a] Gentry, A. W. 1978a. Tragulidae and Camelidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 536-539. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G78b] Gentry, A. W. 1978b. Bovidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 540-572. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GRH06] Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 101-117.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899-1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H78] Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[HD03] Hassanin, A., & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2): 206-228.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[JJ84] Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.

[JS88] Janis, C. M., & K. M. Scott. 1988. The phylogeny of the Ruminantia (Artiodactyla, Mammalia). In The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, vol. 2. Mammals (M. J. Benton, ed.) pp. 273-282. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[K84] Kitchen, D. W. 1984. Pronghorn. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 102-103. Torstar Books: New York.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1-247.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521-524.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

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