Gastropoda

Depressigyra globulus, copyright Femorale.


Belongs within: Mollusca.
Contains: Scoliostomatidae, Archinacelloidea, Caseolus, Discula, Bellerophontacea, Macluritina, Patellogastropoda, Pseudophoridae, Planitrochidae, Cocculiniformia, Neomphaloidea, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Loxonematoidea, Caenogastropoda, Soleniscidae, Heterobranchia.

The Gastropoda are the largest of the commonly-recognised molluscan classes. Ancestrally, gastropods have a dorsal, unchambered, often helically coiled, shell (lost in numerous derived groups) and a head with eyes and cephalic tentacles. Gastropods are also distinguished (at least in the crown group) by the process of torsion where, during development, the gut becomes U-shaped and the initially posterior anus is moved to an anterior position (Cox 1960). Whether some early fossil groups such as the Bellerophontacea with coiled but bilaterally symmetrical shells underwent torsion has been subject to some debate; consequently, some authors would dispute the classification of such groups as gastropods. The effects of torsion have also become reduced in some derived subgroups of the gastropods. Earlier classifications united those groups exhibiting full torsion through to maturity as the 'Prosobranchia', a taxon that has now been abandoned as paraphyletic. Also now regarded as paraphyletic are the 'Archaeogastropoda', a previously recognised group of gastropods with the gill ctenidia bilaterally filamented and terminally free, including essentially all living gastropods outside the Apogastropoda, in which the ctenidia become lost, or pectinate with filaments on one side only with the axis adherent to the pallial wall (Knight et al. 1960). Living 'archaeogastropods' have been divided between the Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda; there are also some small groups, such as the Cocculiniformia, for which there are conflicting opinions as to whether they form a clade with the Vetigastropoda or whether they represent independent lineages.

On the basis of their retention of a plesiomorphic radula with a central tooth flanked by a small number of lateral and marginal teeth, similar to those found in some other mollusc classes, the Patellogastropoda have been suggested as the sister group to other living gastropods, though their relationship with basal fossil groups remains uncertain. The remaining living gastropods, the Orthogastropoda, developed a more longitudinally flexible radula with a higher number of more differentiated lateral and marginal teeth (though this was further modified, and sometimes secondarily reduced, in some derived lineages). Within the Orthogastropoda, the Neritimorpha and Apogastropoda are united by the loss of a number of organs on the right side of the body, such as the right kidney. Further such losses characterise the Apogastropoda alone, such as the loss of the right auricle (Simone 2011).

Characters (from Cox 1960): Head distinct, more or less fused with foot and with eyes and tentacles present in unspecialized forms, typically sole-like and adapted for creeping, much modified in pelagic and some other forms. Radula normally present. Cerebral and pleural nerve ganglia distinct. Organs of the pallial complex re-oriented as the result of "torsion" (in some forms a definite episode observable in early ontogeny, in others inferred to have taken place in ancestral forms). Bilateral asymmetry present to a varying degree in all living representatives, although complete symmetry may have existed in extinct Bellerophontacea. Shell, if present, single (univalve), calcareous, closed apically, endogastric when spiral, not divided regularly into chambers.

<==Gastropoda (see below for synonymy)
    |--Eogastropoda BR05
    |    |--Macluritina TE01
    |    `--Patellogastropoda BR05
    `--Orthogastropoda (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |  i. s.: Pseudophoracea C60
         |           |--Pseudophoridae B79
         |           `--Planitrochidae KC60
         |--+--Cocculiniformia S11
         |  `--+--Depressigyra globulus GO06
         |     `--Neomphaloidea GO06
         `--+--Vetigastropoda S11
            `--Adenogonogastropoda S11
                 |--Neritimorpha S11
                 `--Apogastropoda (see below for synonymy) BR05
                      |  i. s.: Protostylus Mansuy 1914 (n. d.) KC60
                      |           `--*P. lantenoisi Mansuy 1914 KC60
                      |         ‘Cyclora’ imbricata Whiteaves 1881 G88
                      |         ‘Cyclora’ valvatiformis Whiteaves 1881 G88
                      |--Loxonematoidea PC08
                      `--+--Caenogastropoda BR05
                         `--+--Soleniscidae PC08
                            `--+--+--Heterobranchia BR05
                               |  `--Imoglobidae PC08
                               |       |--Imogloba Nützel, Erwin & Mapes 2000 BR05
                               |       `--Chlorozyga Nützel & Cook 2002 FB04
                               |            `--C. decussata (Yoo 1988) FB04
                               `--+--Peruneloidea [Perunelomorpha] BR05
                                  |    |--Perunela Frýda & Bandel 1997 BR05 [Perunelidae PC08]
                                  |    |--Sphaerodoma Keyes 1889 [Sphaerodomidae] BR05
                                  |    `--Chuchlinidae BR05
                                  |         |--Zenospira Frýda & Bandel 1997 F01
                                  |         |--Havlicekiela Frýda 1999 FB04
                                  |         `--Chuchlina Frýda & Manda 1997 BR05
                                  |              `--C. minuta Frýda & Manda 1997 FB04
                                  `--Prokopiconchinae PC08
                                       |--Holynelites Frýda 1998 F01
                                       |    `--*H. papiliformis Frýda 1998 F01
                                       |--Prokopiconcha Frýda 2001 BR05
                                       |    `--*P. bisinuata Frýda 2001 F01
                                       `--Balbiniconcha Horný 1992 F01
                                            |--*B. kosmasi Horný 1992 F01
                                            `--B. cerinka Frýda 2001 FB04

Gastropoda incertae sedis:
  Spiniplatyceras FBL02
  Serpentubina Horný 1964 FBL02
  Kiviasukkaan Peel 1975 FBL02
  Pragoserpulina Frýda 1998 [Pragoserpulinidae] BR05
  Luoguispira Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--*L. micra Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--L. lineata Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    `--L. multilinea Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
  Luoguella Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    |--*L. elegantula Pan & Erwin 2002 [=Gyrospira elegantula] PE02
    `--L. diana Pan & Erwin 2002 [=Gyrospira diana] PE02
  Propupa PE02
  Extendilabrum PE02
  Tetrabubispira PE02
  Groomodiscus Rohr & Yochelson 1990 FBL02
  Kalchreuthia Gründel & Nützel 1998 GK02
  Paladilha (Lartella Cossmann 1921) GK02
  Pseudotaphrus (Pezantia Cossmann 1896) GK02
  Hedilopsis spiculifera TS02
  Burtoa nilotica Pi02
  Pseudoglessula Pi02
  Chlamydarion Pi02
  Derjuginella rufofasciata GAS03
  Erheria vincta GAS03
  Melanochlamis GAS03
    |--M. cylindrica HS01
    `--M. diomedea GAS03
  Yokoyamia ornatissima GAS03
  Epheria turrita KBC03
  Tersiella plicosa KBC03
  Ausola angustata KBC03
  Tegella C79
    |--T. aquilirostris KBC03
    |--T. nigrans KBC03
    `--T. verrucosa C79
  Hinia cuvieri M62
  Neritula donovani M62
  Oxytrema silicula B96
  Siphocypraea problematica Heilprin 1886 HP04
  Hystrivasum horridum Heilprin 1886 HP04
  Benthonella tenella (Jeffreys 1869) OT04
  Chlupacispira spinosa Blodgett & Rohr 1989 FB04
  Eulepetopsis vitrea GO06
  Purkynespira Frýda & Bandel 1997 FB01
    `--P. reticulata FB01
  Ceratotheca Novak 1891 F62 [Ceratothecidae M90]
    `--*C. adunca (Barrande 1867) [=Hyolithes aduncus] F62
  Streptopelma henchmani Marwick 1926 F27a
  Latirofusus Cossmann 1889 F27b
    |--*L. funiculosus F27b
    |--L. aciformis [=Fusus aciformis] F27b
    |--L. acus [=Fusus acus] F27b
    |--L. lancea [=Fusus lancea] F27b
    |--L. optatus M. & M. 1923 F27a
    `--L. spiceri (Tenison-Woods 1877) [=Fusus spiceri; incl. L. nigrofuscus Tate 1891] F27b
  Buccinulus F27a
    |--B. albus F27a
    |--B. huttoni Kirk 1882 F27a
    `--B. kirki Hutton 1873 [incl. B. gracilis Kirk 1882] F27a
  Triploca Tate 1894 F27a
    |--T. ligata F27a
    `--T. waihaoensis Marshall & Murdoch 1923 F27a
  Leucotina F27a
    |--L. casta (Adams 1853) [=Monoptgyma casta] H09
    |--L. helva Hedley 1900 H09
    `--L. pura (Adams 1855) F27a
  Sublacuna Cossmann 1899 [=Strebloramphus Tate 1898 (preoc.)] F27b
    `--*S. mirula (Tate 1898) [=*Strebloramphus mirulus] F27b
  Coptochetus asperulus [=Fusus asperulus] F27b
  Hemipirena Rovereto 1899 [=Claviger Haldeman 1842 nec Preyssler 1790 nec Agassiz 1846] F27b
  Trifora Deshayes in Blainville 1828 O27
    |--*T. perversa O27
    |--T. callipyrga Bartsch 1907 O27
    |--T. carpenteri Bartsch 1903 O27
    |--T. catalinensis Bartsch 1907 O27
    |--T. montereyensis Bartsch 1907 O27
    |--T. pedroana Bartsch 1907 O27
    |--T. peninsularis Bartsch 1907 O27
    `--T. stearnsi Bartsch 1907 O27
  Barocospira Horný 1964 FBL02
  Ibergia Blodgett & Frýda 1999 FBL02
  Crassimarginatidae BR05
    |--Yukonoconcha Frýda, Blodgett & Lenz 2002 FBL02
    |    `--*Y. pedderi Frýda, Blodgett & Lenz 2002 FBL02
    `--Crassimarginata Jhaveri 1969 BR05
         |--*C. crassicosta Jhaveri 1969 FBL02
         `--C. tenuicosta Jhaveri 1969 FBL02
  Scoliostomatidae BR05
  Levihelix pusilla Gründel 2000 GK02
  Sinuginella pygmaea HS01
  Adelphotectonica reevi HS01
  Bouchetriphora pallida HS01
  Fictonoba carnosa HS01
  Limulatys reliquus HS01
  Pisinna HS01
    |--P. manawatawhia HS01
    |--P. olivacea HS01
    |    |--P. o. olivacea HS01
    |    `--P. o. impressa HS01
    |--P. rekohuana HS01
    |    |--P. r. rekohuana HS01
    |    `--P. r. lactorubra HS01
    |--P. semiplicata HS01
    `--P. zosterophila HS01
  Sagenotriphora ampulla HS01
  Camita rotellina (Gould 1860) [=Trochus (Monodonata) rotellinus] H08
  Turcia H09
    |--T. maculata (Brazier 1877) [=Thalotia maculata] H09
    |--T. monilifera Adams 1855 H09
    `--T. montrouzieri (Fischer 1878) [=Tectaria montrouzieri] H09
  Mecoliotia spinosa Hedley 1902 H09
  Moerchia introspecta Hedley 1907 H09
  Quoyia decollata (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) [=Planaxis decollatus] H09
  Eglisia H09
    |--E. striolata H86
    `--E. tricarinata Adams & Reeve 1840 H09
  Couthouyia aculeata Hedley 1900 H09
  Pterocera H09
    |--P. bryonia (Gmelin 1791) [=Strombus bryonius] H09
    `--P. lambis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Strombus lambis] H09
  Oscilla tasmanica (Ten.-Woods 1877) [=Parthenia tasmanica] H09
  Elusa subulata (Adams 1855) [=Pyramidella subulata] H09
  Scalenostoma striatum Hedley 1900 H09
  Distortrix decipiens (Reeve 1844) [=Triton decipiens] H09
  Radius angasi (Reeve 1865) [=Ovulum angasi] H09
  Laimodonta conica Pease 1862 H09
  Plecotrema H09
    |--P. moniliferum Adams & Adams 1854 H09
    `--P. typicum Adams & Adams 1854 H09
  Blauneria leonardi Crosse 1872 H09
  Haminea H09
    |--H. brevis (Quoy & Gaimard 1883) [=Bulla brevis] H09
    |--H. crocata Pease 1860 H09
    |--H. papyrus (Adams 1850) [=Bulla papyrus] H09
    `--H. vitrea (Adams 1850) [=Bulla vitrea] H09
  Paraplysia piperata (Smith 1884) [=Aplysia piperata] H09
  Euselenops luniceps (Cuvier 1830) [=Pleurobranchus luniceps] H09
  Placomopherus insignis Smith 1884 H09
  Adiozoptyxis Dietrich 1925 [Adiozoptyxinae, Adiozoptyxisinae] BR05
  Archinacelloidea BR05
  ‘Bulimina’ Ehrenberg 1831 non d’Orbigny 1826 BR05
  ‘Cavolinia’ Bruguière 1791 non Abilgaard 1791 BR05
  Cerycium Philippi 1841 [Ceryciidae, Cerycoidea] BR05
  Creneatachea Zilch 1960 BR05
  Crenea Risso 1826 BR05
  Cypraedia Swainson 1840 [Cypraediinae, Cypraediini] BR05
  Cypraeogemmula Vredenburg 1920 [Cypraeogemmulinae, Cypraeogemmulini] BR05
  Deridobranchus Ehrenberg 1831 [Deridobranchina, Deridobranchinae] BR05
  Incrispella Tasch 1963 [Incrispellidae] BR05
  Itruvia Stoliczka 1867 [Itruviidae] BR05
  Japeuthria Iredale 1918 [Japeuthriinae] BR05
  Kanamarua Kuroda 1951 [Kanamariidae, Kanamaruidae] BR05
  Ladamarekia Horný 1992 [Ladamarekiidae] BR05
  Leachia Risso 1826 [Leachiae] BR05
  Megalostominae BR05
    |--Cataulus BR05
    `--Nicida BR05
  Melanioptyxis Cossmann 1896 [Melanioptyxinae] BR05
  Neoptyxis Wenz 1940 [Neoptyxidae] BR05
  Oligoptyxis Pchelintsev 1953 [Oligoptyxidae] BR05
  ‘Opisthonema’ Yu 1974 non Gill 1862 [Opisthonematidae] BR05
  Palaeocyclophorus Wenz 1923 BR05
  Patelliconus Horný 1961 [Patelliconidae] BR05
  Pentaptyxis Pchelintsev 1965 [Pentaptyxidae] BR05
  Pentataenia Schmidt 1855 [Pentataeniidae, Pentataeniinae] BR05
  Plesioplocus Pchelintsev 1953 [Plesioplocidae] BR05
  Polyodonte Fischer 1807 BR05
  Polyodonta Megerle 1811 BR05
  Praematuratropis Rollins 1968 [Praematuratropidae] BR05
  Precuthona Odhner 1929 [Precuthoninae] BR05
  Protoconchoides Shaw 1962 [=Protoconchioides (l. c.); Protoconchioididae, Protoconchoididae] BR05
  Pseudobythinella Melville 1956 BR05
  Rhytidopilus Cossmann 1895 [=Rhytidophilus (l. c.); Rhytidophilidae, Rhytidopilidae] BR05
    `--*R. humbertinus (Buvignier 1852) [=Patella humbertina] KC60
  Posterobranchaea [Sinistrobranchia, Sinistrobranchidae] BR05
  Strobilus Anton 1838 [Strobilinae] BR05
  Styliferina Adams 1860 [Styliferinidae] BR05
  Stylocheilus Gould 1852 [Stylocheilinae, Stylochiniae] BR05
  Sulcocypraea Conrad 1865 [Sulcocypraeinae, Sulcocypraeini] BR05
  Transovula de Gregorio 1880 [Transovulini] BR05
  Trochalia Sharpe 1850 [Trochaliidae] BR05
  Uniplocus Lyssenko 1984 [Uniplocidae] BR05
  Papustyla pulcherrima USDI77
  Acilia franciscae TE01
  Anisus L06
    |--A. spirorbis (Linnaeus 1758) L06
    `--A. vortex (Linnaeus 1758) L06
  Bathyomphalus contortus (Linnaeus 1758) L06
  Hippeutis complanatus (Linnaeus 1758) L06
  Caseolus CC06
  Leiostyla CC06
    |--L. calathiscus CC06
    |--L. corneocostata (Wollaston 1878) CC06
    |--L. espigaoensis Seddon 1990 CC06
    |--L. ferraria CC06
    |--L. monticola CC06
    |--L. revelata CC06
    `--L. subcorneocostata Seddon 1990 CC06
  Eucobresia media (Lowe 1854) CC06
  Heterostoma Filippi 1837 CC06, LT64 [=Heterostomum Diesing 1850 LT64]
    `--H. paupercula (Lowe 1831) [incl. Steenbergia duplex] CC06
  Spirorbula CC06
    |--S. depauperata (Lowe 1831) [incl. S. latinea (Paiva 1866)] CC06
    |--S. obtecta CC06
    `--S. squalida CC06
  Discula CC06
  Plagyrona placida (Shuttleworth 1852) CC06
  Staurodon saxicola CC06
  Actinella CC06
    |--A. arcinella CC06
    |    |--A. a. arcinella CC06
    |    `--A. a. papillosa CC06
    |--A. crassiuscula CC06
    |--A. effugiens CC06
    |--A. morenensis CC06
    `--A. promontoriensis CC06
  Pseudocampylaea CC06
    |--P. lowei CC06
    `--P. portosanctana CC06
  Amphorella CC06
    |--A. cimensis CC06
    |--A. gracilis CC06
    |--A. melampoides CC06
    |--A. oryza CC06
    |--A. terebella CC06
    |--A. triticea CC06
    `--A. tuberculata CC06
  Cylichnidia ovuliformis CC06
  Lampadia webbiana CC06
  Lemniscia michaudi CC06
  Eufenella pupoides (Adams 1860) BD86
  Clathrofenella reticulata (Adams 1860) BD86
  Heliosoma trivolvis AS07
  Allocharopa belli SC07
  Columna flammea D66
  Probaicalia ZZ88
    |--P. gerassimovi ZZ88
    |--P. rammelmeyeri ZZ88
    `--P. vitimensis ZZ88
  Brotiopsis wakinoensis ZZ88
  Tulotomoides talatziensis ZZ88
  Gyrodema etheridgei F71
  Magelia bidens Tenison-Woods 1878 F71
  Odontostomia cretacea Etheridge 1907 F71
  Vanikoropsis stuarti F71
  Lindoliva spengleri Petuch 1988 P89
  Stenorhytis pernobilis (Fischer & Bernardi 1857) A88
  Armiger crista (Linnaeus 1758) P88
  Stagnicola P88
    |--S. caperata (Say 1829) P88
    |--S. catascopium (Say 1817) P88
    |--S. palustris Muller 1774 P88
    `--S. reflexa (Say 1821) P88
  Marstonia decepta (Baker 1928) P88
  Probythinella lacustris (Baker 1928) P88
  Bulimnea megasoma (Say 1824) P88
  Japonia AA88
    |--J. ciliata (Sowerby 1843) AA88
    `--J. stephanophora (Moellendorff 1895) AA88
  Gymnentome valida H75
  Ptychostylus guimarotensis Bandel 1991 B01
  Melampoides jurassicus Bandel 1991 B01
  Ittibittium Houbrick 1993 BC01
    `--I. turriculum (Usticke 1969) (see below for synonymy) BC01
  Pseudogibbula Dautzenberg 1890 BC01
    `--P. cara (Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927) [=Cleopatra cara] BC01
  Torrella Henderson & Bartsch 1920 BC01
    `--*C. torreiana (Gundlach ex Arango y Molina 1878) [=Ctenopoma torreianum] BC01
  Rhiostoma Benson 1860 BC01
    `--R. housei (Haines 1855) [=Cyclostoma (Pterocyclos) housei; incl. *R. haughtoni Benson 1860] BC01
  Blanfordia Adams 1863 BC01
    `--B. viridescens (Pease 1861) [=Cyclostoma viridescens] BC01
  Pseudotorinia retifera (Dall 1892) [incl. Heliacus crystallina Usticke 1969] BC01
  Alcaldia Gray 1840 BC01
    `--A. pompholyx (Pilsbry 1933) [=Helicina pompholyx] BC01
  Bullata Jousseaume 1875 BC01
    `--B. matthewsi (van Mol & Tursch 1967) [=Marginella (Prunum) matthewsi] BC01
  Elimia Adams & Adams 1854 BC01
    `--E. laeta (Jay 1839) [=Melania laeta] BC01
  Boonea impressa (Say 1822) [incl. Odostomia (Menestho) beauforti Jacot 1921] BC01
  Fargoa bushiana (Bartsch 1909) [incl. Odostomia charlottae Usticke 1969] BC01
  Bridouxia Bourguignat 1885 [incl. Horea Smith 1889 non Bourguignat 1888] BC01
    `--B. ponsonbyi (Smith 1889) [=Rissoa (*Horea) ponsonbyi] BC01
  Mesophora Laseron 1958 BC01
    `--M. novem (Usticke 1969) [=Triphora novem] BC01
  Eutriphora bermudensis (Bartsch 1911) [incl. Triphora turrissimilis Usticke 1969] BC01
  Aroapyrgus Baker 1931 BC01
    `--A. dubiosus Adams 1852 [=Truncatella dubiosa] BC01
  Chippewaella EL11
  Moerkeia Böhm 1895 NE02
  Greggelix indigena C90
  Torquilla frumentum D56
  Australorbis odhner NG13
  Sinopupoides hubeiensis NG13
  Bulgarica thessalonica (Olivier 1801) O03
  Bellerophontacea KC60
  Palleseria longwelli C60
  Clavilithes rugosus C60
  Partulida spiralis C60
  Ampullella bulimoides C60
  Cepatia cepacea C60
  Palaeocyclotus exaratus C60
  Berlieria deLoriol 1903 KC60
    `--*B. ledonica deLoriol 1903 KC60
  Pseudorhytidopilus Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 KC60
    `--*P. lennieri Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 (see below for synonymy) KC60
  Atlantobellerophon Trechmann 1930 KC60
    `--*A. zealandicus Trechmann 1930 KC60
  Burdikinia Knight 1937 [=Polyamma Etheridge 1917 non Kriechbaumer 1894] KC60
    `--*B. burdikiensis (Etheridge 1917) [=*Polyamma burdikiensis] KC60
  Cinctaspira Powell 1933 KC60
    `--*C. conica Powell 1933 KC60
  ‘Conchula’ Steininger 1849 non Herrmannsen 1847 (n. d.) KC60
    `--*C. cylindracea Steininger 1849 (n. d.) KC60
  ‘Geinitzia’ Dietz 1911 nec Gemmellaro 1892 nec Handlirsch 1906 KC60
    `--*G. carinata Dietz 1911 KC60
  Kebina Vologdin 1955 KC60
    `--*K. pulchra Vologdin 1955 KC60
  Ozarkina Ulrich & Bridge 1931 [=Ozarkispira Ulrich & Bridge 1931 non Walcott 1924] KC60
    `--*O. typica (Ulrich & Bridge 1931) [=*Ozarkispira typica] KC60
  Ozarkocanus Heller 1956 KC60
    `--*O. prearcuatus Heller 1956 KC60
  Pondia Oder 1932 KC60
    `--*P. powelli Oder 1932 KC60
  Pythmenema Lamont & Gilbert 1945 KC60
    `--*P. praenantium (Phillips 1848) [=Euomphalus praenantius] KC60
  Trochotremaria Ryckholt 1860 KC60
  Umbotrochus Perner 1903 [=Umbonitrochus Cossmann 1918] KC60
    `--*U. aspersus Perner 1903 KC60
  Acevina Rusconi 1952 KC60
    `--*A. cuyunchensis (Rusconi 1952) [=Helcionella (*Acevina) cuyunchensis] KC60
  Odontosagda V18
    |--O. abbotti Vanatta 1918 V18
    |--O. blandi V18
    `--O. hilli V18
  Khairkhaniidae [Khairkhaniiformes] Pa02
    |--+--Protowenella Runnegar & Jell 1976 Pa02
    |  `--Xinjispira Yu & Rong 1987 Pa02
    `--+--+--Barskovia Golubev 1976 [incl. Nekolenia Vassiljeva 1998] Pa02
       |  `--Philoxenella Vostokova 1962 Pa02
       `--+--Khairkhania Missarzhevsky 1981 Pa02
          |--Ardrossania Runnegar in Bengtson et al. 1990 Pa02
          `--Michniakia Missarzhevsky 1966 Pa02
  Aplysiopsis smithi (Marcus 1961) B77
  Vivipara CS77
    |--V. angularis F66
    |--V. bengalensis CS77
    `--V. unicolor A66
  Indoplanorbis exustus MD13
  Volvaria ficoides H86
  Cassidaria H86
    |--C. senex [=Struthiolaria senex] H86
    `--C. sulcata H86
  Sorapisella Bandel 1993 B00
  Triadoskenea Bandel 1993 B00
  Wortheniella Schwardt 1992 B00
  Rolandomphalus Schwardt 1992 B00

Apogastropoda [Anaclodonta, Architectonicoida, Ctenobranchia, Gymnoglossa, Heterogastropoda, Heterophrosynidae, Loxonematacea, Monotocardia, Oligopteria, Orbacea, Pectinibranchiata, Peristomacea, Potamophila, Procaenogastropoda, Solenisciformes, Soleniscoidea,Taenioglossa] BR05

Gastropoda [Abranchiata, Anisobranchia, Anisopleura, Apterygia, Archaeogastropoda, Aspidobranchiata, Clypeaceae, Ctenobranchiata, Cyclobranchia, Dicoeca, Diotocardia, Fissuracea, Galeroconcha, Gasteropoda, Gasteropodophora, Gasterozoa, Gastraeopoda, Paracephalophora, Patellina, Peristomatacea, Peristomatidae, Platyceratacea, Podophthalma, Prosobranchia, Prosobranchiata, Pselaphocephala, Rhipidoglossa, Scutibranchia, Scutiformia, Streptoneura]

Ittibittium turriculum (Usticke 1969) [=Bittium varium f. turricula, Alabina turricula, B. turriculum, Cerithiodes turricula] BC01

Orthogastropoda [Anentomostomata, Aponotoneura, Asiphonobranchia, Auxogastropoda, Cricostomata, Goniostomata, Gonyostomata, Hemicyclostoma, Neurobranchia, Operculata, Otidea, Trochina, Trochomorpha] BR05

*Pseudorhytidopilus lennieri Cox in Knight, Cox et al. 1960 [incl. Helcion castellana Lennier 1868 non Patella castellana Thurmann & Étallon 1861] KC60

*Type species of generic name indicated

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