Girtyspira delicata, from Pan & Erwin (2002).

Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Subulitoidea, Cyclophoroidea, Ampullarioidea, Viviparoidea, Hypsogastropoda, Palaeostyloidea, Cerithioidea.

The Caenogastropoda is one of the major clades of gastropods, including the neogastropods and most of the 'mesogastropods'. Caenogastropods are primarily aquatic, including both marine and freshwater species. The majority of caenogastropods (including all living marine species) are included in a clade Sorbeoconcha, whose name, 'sucking shell' refers to the primarily inhalant flow of water into the pallial cavity (Ponder & Lindberg 1997). The Acteoninoidea of the late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic may represent more basal marine caenogastropods, with the living non-sorbeoconchan terrestrial and freshwater forms representing relictual taxa.

Characters (from Ponder & Lindberg 1997): Ctenidium monopectinate, with skeletal rods. Simple renal lamellae in adult left renal gland. Podocytes restricted to filtration site of auricle with characteristic closed filtration chambers and histology. Euspermatozoon with subacrosomal basal plate; sperm midpiece long, with four or more mitochondria not arranged in a helical coil; paraspermatozoa with distinct head and tail tuft. Radula with two marginal teeth. Nerve ring posterior to buccal mass, salivary glands passing through nerve ring. Three or more anterior pedal nerves. Intestine with first loop short, around style sac region only; anus in anterior half of anterior pallial cavity. Faecal material produced as pellets.

<==Caenogastropoda [Architaenioglossa, Cyclophoracea, Fusiformia, Mesogastropoda]
    |--+--Cyclophoroidea S11
    |  `--Hydrogastropoda S11
    |       |--Ampullarioidea S11
    |       `--Epiarthroidea S11
    |            |--Viviparoidea S11
    |            `--Sorbeoconcha (see below for synonymy) S11
    |                 |  i. s.: Canterburyella Bandel, Gründel & Maxwell 2000 [Canterburyellidae] BR05
    |                 |         Prisciphora Schröder 1992 [=Prisciophora (l. c.); Prisciophoridae, Prisciphoridae] BR05
    |                 |--Hypsogastropoda PC08
    |                 `--+--Palaeostyloidea PC08
    |                    `--Cerithioidea PC08
    `--Acteoninoidea BR05
         |--Anozygidae BR05
         |    |--Anozyga Hoare 1980 [Anozyginae] BR05
         |    `--Tmetonema Longstaff 1912 [Tmetoneminae] BR05
         |         `--*T. subsulcatum Longstaff 1912 KC60
         `--Acteoninidae BR05
              |--Acteonina d’Orbigny 1850 [=Actaeonina (l. c.); Acteonininae] BR05
              |    |--*A. carbonaria (de Koninck 1843) [=Chemnitzia carbonaria] BR05
              |    `--A. acuta BR05
              `--Meekospirinae [Meekospiridae] BR05
                   |--Meekospira Ulrich in Ulrich & Scofield 1897 BR05
                   |    `--*M. peracuta (Meek & Worthen 1861) [=Eulima peracuta] PE02
                   |--Auriptygma Perner 1903 KC60
                   |    `--*A. fortior Perner 1903 KC60
                   `--Girtyspira Knight 1936 PE02
                        |--*G. canaliculata (Hall 1858) [=Bulimella canaliculata] PE02
                        |--G. delicata Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
                        |--G. micra Xi in Wang & Xi 1980 PE02
                        `--G. solida (Yu in Wang & Xi 1980) PE02

Caenogastropoda incertae sedis:
  Rhabdocolpus (Infacerithium) klebyensis Gründel 1974 GK02
  Gaeatrivia millardi Cate 1979 M03
  Serratovolva dondani Cate 1964 M03
  Subulitoidea F01
  Balcis GO06
    |--B. alba BK77
    |--B. devians [=Eulima devians; incl. E. philippii Watson 1886] BK77
    `--B. eburnea GO06
  Decorochilina Frýda 1999 F01
  Plicatus Pan & Erwin 2002 [Plicatusidae] BR05
    |--*P. scalaris Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
    `--P. multifilaris Pan & Erwin 2002 PE02
  Spanionema Whidborne 1891 [Spanionematidae, Spanionematoidea] BR05
    `--*S. scalaroides (Whidborne 1889) [=Loxonema scalaroides] KC60
  Abyssochrysos Tomlin 1927 [Abyssochrysidae, Abyssochrysidinae] BR05
  Spirochrysalis Kittl 1894 NE02
    `--S. protomicra Pan 1982 NE02
  Purpuroidea Lycett 1848 NE02
    `--P. minioi Leonardi 1935 NE02
  Lampanella minima PC08
  Pragoscutula Frýda 1998 PC08, BR05 [Pragoscutulidae]
    `--P. wareni Frýda 1998 FB01
  Dendropupoidea BR05 [Anthracopupoidea, Dendropupinae KC60, Procyclophoroida]
    |--Anthracopupa Whitfield 1881 [Anthracopupidae, Anthracopupinae] BR05
    |    `--*A. ohioensis Whitfield 1881 KC60
    |--Dendropupa Owen 1860 BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--*D. vetusta (Dawson 1859) [=Pupa vetusta] KC60
    |--Carbonispira Yen 1949 KC60
    |    `--*C. scotica Yen 1949 KC60
    `--Maturipupa Pilsbry 1926 KC60
         `--*M. vermilionensis (Bradley 1872) [=Pupa vermilionensis] KC60

Dendropupa Owen 1860 BR05 [incl. Strophella Dawson 1895 KC60, Strophites Dawson 1880 non Deshayes 1832 KC60; Dendropupidae]

Sorbeoconcha [Anandria, Aulobranchiata, Cerithimorpha, Littorinina, Neotaenioglossa, Palaeocaenogastropoda, Siphonobranchei, Siphonobranchia, Siphonobranchiata, Tubispirantia]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[F01] Frýda, J. 2001. Discovery of a larval shell in Middle Paleozoic subulitoidean gastropods with description of two new species from the Early Devonian of Bohemia. Vĕstnik Českého Geologického Ústavu 76 (1): 29–37.

[FB01] Frýda, J., & R. B. Blodgett. 2001. The oldest known heterobranch gastropod, Kuskokwimia gen. nov., from the Early Devonian of west-central Alaska, with notes on the early phylogeny of higher gastropods. Vĕstnik Českého Geologického Ústavu 76 (1): 39–53.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[GK02] Gründel, J., & T. Kowalke. 2002. Palaeorissoinidae, a new family of marine and brackish water Rissooidea (Gastropoda, Littorinimorpha). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 226 (1): 43–57.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[M03] Meyer, C. P. 2003. Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.

[NE02] Nützel, A., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Battenizyga, a new Early Triassic gastropod genus with a discussion of the caenogastropod evolution at the Permian/Triassic boundary. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (1): 21–27.

[PE02] Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. Journal of Paleontology 76 (Memoir 56): 1–49.

[PC08] Ponder, W. F., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, A. Nützel, L. R. L. Simone & E. E. Strong. 2008. Caenogastropoda. In: Ponder, W. F., & D. L. Lindberg (eds) Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca pp. 331–383. University of California Press: Berkeley.

Ponder, W. F., & D. R. Lindberg. 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 119 (2): 83-265.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

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